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Do man History \% 
^... in Brief *^ 







rvtf-yMf>''''^Sif~-sMI-- >4Xr*«^«f>^3PNH^ -^OTN-IA ' 

Teacher of UUlor.j in Harhord Street CoUeffiati' Jntlitule, J 






Teacher <if lIUtDiy in Harbord street Collegiate Institute, Toronto. 

PRICK, = - 15 Cents 



Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, 
the year one thousand nine hundred, by the Education 
Publishing Company, at the Department of Agriculture. 


This little compendium, though hrief, will be found 
to meet the requirements for Matriculation (Pass and 
Honors) and Departmental Examinations (Junior and 
Senior Leaving). The maps, which contain all historical 
places of importance, and the examination questions, 
will greatly assist the student of Roman History. 


I The Aryan Family and Italian Races : 



' Aequiaiis 




II. The Etruscans : — Oricrinally quite distinct from the 

Gracco-Italic stock in bodily structure, manners and 
customs, religion, and language. " It is difficult to de- 
termine from what quarter they migrated into Italy." 
They conquered districts south of the Tiber, encircled 
Rome on all sides, holding Campania till driVen out by 
the Samnites in the fifth century. 

III, The Greeks in Italy:— 

I. Greek settlements : Cumae (the oldest), Vesuvius, 
Rhegium, Messana, Catana, Himera, Syracuse, Crotcn, 
Sybaris, Thurii, Tarentum, etc. S. Italy called Magna 

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the; racks ok ITALY, 7 

2. Rivalry bcLween Greeks and Phoenicians, particularly 

in Sicily. 

3. The Greeks the first to usher in the dawn of eastern 

civilization into Italy. 

rv. Characteristics of the Romans : - 

1. Strength, robustness, vigor, activity, habits of obedience 

and self-control. 

2. Resoluteness, unwavering steadfastness, indomitable 


3. Intense practicality ; love of order, method, system, 

unity, autonomy. 

4. Sturdy ambition, bravery ; iove of war, conquest, and 


5. Moral integrity, above the Greeks or other races of 


6. Vanity, self-confidence, love 01 praise. 

•7. Lack of ideality and the refined creative genius of the 

Examination Questions on The Races of Italy. 

1. Enumerate the Aryan or Indo-European races, and indicate the sub- 

divisions of the separation that peopled Italy. 1879. 

2. Name the provinces of Italia and Hellas, showing their relative position. 

".. Mention the ancient divisions and chief towns of Central Italy. 1884. 

4. Briefly indicate the influence of physical geography on the ancient history 

of Italy. 1885. 

5. Compare the Greeks and Romans with special reference to their general 

characteristics, their sports, their literatures, and their treatment of 
women. 1885. 
f). Name the cities of Gallia Cisalpina, Latium, Achaia, and Ionia, addins: 
brief descriptive notes and giving, where possible, the modern name. 

7. What characteristics enabled the Romans to conquer their neighbors and 

establish the Empire ? 1890. 

8. Draw a map of ancient Italy and Sicily, showing the different districts 

into which the former was divided and locating the following places : 
Agrigentum, Brundnsium, Cannae, Capua, Corfi.jtum, Lilvbaeum, Plac- 
entia, Rhegium, Syracuse, Tarentum. IS'JB. 

.■). Explain the advantages and the disadvantages of the geographical situ- 
ation of Rome 1902. 

10. Indicate the situation of the following and mention any important 
events in history connected with them : Ticinus, Trasimenus, Samnium. 
Tarontum. Phafsalia. 1902. 



I. Extent : — From the founding of Rome, 753 B.C., to the 

expulsion of the Tarquins, 509. 

II. Aeneas the Trojan :— 

1. His escape from Troy, 1184; his landing with a Trojan 

band at Laurentum in Latium ; marriage of Aeneas and 
Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus. 

2. Rule of King Aeneas over the united Trojans and Latins. 

Founding of Lavinium. 

3. Transfer by Ascanius, his son, of the seat of empire from 

Lavinium to Alba L/Ouga, the head of 30 Latin towns. 

III. Legend of Romulus and Remus, descendants of 

Aeneas : Exposure on the Tiber of these twin grandsons 
of King Numitor ; their miraculous preservation by a 
she-wolf ; their life among the Latian peasants ; their 
recognition as heirs to the Alban throne; their restoration, 

IV. The Foundingr of Rome, 753, by Romulus and 

Remus; " doubtless the fusion of a cluster of separate 
settlements into a single city." 

V. The Seven Kings of Rome :— 

I. Romulus, 753-716, the founder of Rome's political 
institutions : 

(a) Union of Romans, Sabines, and Etruscans of Luc- 
erum ; settlement of the Romans on the Palatine, 
of the Sabines on the Ouirinal Hill. 
(6) Divisions of the people : 

(i) Social : Patricians, landlords, or nobles ; clients 

or tenants ; slaves, 
(2) Political: 3 tribes (Ramnes or Romans, Titles 
or Sabines, Luceres or Etruscans), 30 curiae 
or tribal associations ; 300 gentes or clans 01 
noble families, "a primitive clan division." 
[c) Roman Assemblies : 


(i) The Senate or Council of Klders (200 patricians) 
chosen and presided over by the King. 

(2) Assembly of the Patricians or Comitia Curiata. 
" The popular assembly of united Rome in the 
earliest days was that in which the freemen 
met and voted in their curiae.''^ 
{({) Organization of the Roman Army : 

The Lejrion, 1000 men and 100 horse from each of 
the 3 tribes. 

Numa Pompilius (Sabine), 716-673, the founder of 
Rome's religious institutions : 
{a) Religious Institutions: 

(i) The 12 Salii of Mars : To guard the sacred shields 
and preside over public thanksgivings. 

(2) Temple of Janus : To remain open in war, 

closed in peace. 

(3) Four Pontiffs (including Pontifex Maxinius) : 
An ecclesiastical council to preside over the 
worship of the gods. 

(4) College of Augurs : To consult the will of the 
gods. (Cf. the Greek Oracle). 

(5) Vestal Virgins : To keep alive the sacred fire 
brought from Alba Longa. 

(6) Flamines, or priests of special deities. 

{b) Calendar reforms: Addition of January and Feb- 
ruary to the original 10 months of Romulus. 

(c) Encouragement of the arts of peace. 

{d) Organization of trade-guilds. 
Tullus Hostilius (Roman) 673-640 : 

{a) War with Alba Longa: Combat of the Horatii 
and the Curiatii. The Alba I,ongans subject to 

[b) Changes in the judiciary : Appointment of 2 
judges in the place of the King to try all matters 
of life and death. 
Ancus Marcius (Sabine) 640-616 : 


(a) Re-enactment of Numa's laws. 

(d) War with the Latins : Conquest of a part of 

Latium ; removal of the conquered Latins to Rome 

as pleds or common people, 
(r) First bridge across the Tiber. Fortification of 

{d) Founding of Ostia, Rome's seaport. 
((?) Encouragement of agriculture. 

5. Tarquinius Prisons (Etruscan) 616-578 : 

(a) Increase of Senate to 300 to include Etruscan 

(b) Rise of the plebeian order. 

{c) Great public works : Temple of Jupiter, Great 

Sewers (Cloaca Maximae), Circus Maximus. 
[d) Institution of Roman games. 

6. Servius TuUius (Etruscan) 578-534 : 

(fl) Extension of the Empire ; treaties with Etruscans, 

Latins and Greeks. 
(5) The Servian Reforms : 

(i) First recognition of the plebs. 

(2) Classification of the people as citizens on pro- 
perty qualification. 

(3) Re-organization of the army on the basis of 
landownership instead of birth ; grouped bands 
of 100 men or centuries according to their 
military array. 

(4) Assembh- of Patricians and Plebeians or Comi- 

tia Centuriata (Meetings of the Centuries) 
on a property qualification. 

(5) Assembly of the Plebeians or Comitia Tributa. 

(c) Servian Wall round Rome, including city exten- 

(d) Beginnings of colonization in Latium. 

(e) Murder of Servius by his son-in-law, Tarquinius 


7. Tarquinius Superbus (Rtruscaii) 534-509 : 

(a) Overthrow of the vServian Constitution ; a reign of 

(7;) Alliance with the Latins. 
(C) Expulsion of the Tarquins. Abolition of kingly 


Examination Questions on Legendary and Re^al Rome. 

1. Briffly sketch tlie histor)- of Rome under tlie 7 Kings dealing specially 
with" {II) Tlie establishment of a constitution, (/;) The founding of 
religious institutions, (/•) The iirst Roman Assemblies, (d) The exten- 
sion of Kmiiire. 1S74. 


I. Establishment Of the Roman Republic, 509 — 

I. Chief state officers : 

(a) Two Consuls (Praetores or leaders, consules 
praetores or jointleaders) instead of a King ; 
elected annualh^by the Comitia Centuriata, confirm- 
ed by the Comitia Curiata ; To preside in the 
Senate, administer justice, command armies, direct 
religious affairs. See D. IX. 

[b] Two Q,uaestors or Finance Ministers having 
charge of the State treasury. Increased to 4, then 
to 8, by Sulla to 20, by Caesar to 40. 

II The Strug^gle for Equality, 509-287 :— 

I. The Patricians: 

Intramural, freeborn, aristocratic citizens ; independent 
landowners ; practically an order of nobility ; the 
sole officers of the state ; the controllers of public 
lands ; originally the entire populus Romanus ; 
a privileged order ; an exclusive hereditary body. 
The State. 


2. The Plebeians : 

A secondarv' Roman people, the Commons composed 
of new settlers, farmers, conquered people, etc., 
with inferior rights ; subjects not full citizens ; 
renters not possessors of the folkland ; under taxa- 
tion with no share in the government, ineligible 
for ofl&ce but serving as state infantry without 
pay ; denied the right of intermarriage with pat- 
ricians ; liable to be seized by the patricians as 
slaves for debt. 

3. The Rights of Roman Citizenship : 

(a) Public : Of voting, holding office, appeal from 
the decision of a magistrate, holding stale lands. 

( 1^) Private : Of trading, contracting a religious mar- 

4. Stag-es in the Strugg-le : 

A.— For Relief from Oppressive Patricians, 
Laws, and Customs : 

(i) Lex Valeria or Law of Appeal : No capital 
punishment of an)- Roman citizen save b}' cor.- 
firmation on appeal of the Comitia Centuriata. 

(2) First Secession of the Plebs to rions Sacer, 

494. Terms of their return to Rome:. Aboli- 
tion ot slavery for debt ; release of slaves for 
debt ; annual appointment of two magistrates 
or Tribunes to protect the rights of the people 
from despotic or oppressive consuls ; appoint- 
ment of two plebeian Aediles as overseers of 
public W'orks. 

(3) Famine in Rome. Exile of Coriolanus for 
proposing to withhold foreign food from the 
plebeians unless they surrendered their Mons 
Sacer Charter. 

(4) Agrarian Bill of 5purius Cassius, 486 : 
Division cf the "public land," won in war, 
among the plebeians. Murder of Cassius by 
the patricians. 


(5) Publilian Law, 471 : Election of tribunes by 
the Comitia Tributa ; resolutions {plebiscita) 
of the plebeian assemblj' to be binding on the 

(6) Terentilllan Law, 460 : Appointment of a 
plebeian coniinission to draw up laws to check 
the arbitrary power of the patrician consul. 
A compromise : —Abolition of consuls and 
tribunes for the year ; appointment of 10 com- 
missioners or DeceiTivirs, 451, "with all the 
functions of government, to draw up the new- 
Roman Code and place it in the Forum, so 
that impartial justice might be meted out to 
patrician and plebeian alike, and the power of 
the chief officers might be clearly defined." 
"These 12 tables form the foundation of the 
whole Roman judicial system." 

(7) Distinct gains made by the Plebeians : Plebeian 

magistrates, a plebeian asseml)ly, plebeian 
plebisata, a written code of laws, protection 
against oppression. 
B.— For Equai,ity ; 

(i) Tyranny of the Decemvirs. Legend of the 
sacrifice of the plebeian maiden Virginia. 
Second Secession of the Plebs followed by 
the Valerio°Horatian Laws, 449 (the second 
great charter of plebeian rights) : — The right 
of every citizen to appeal to the people against 
the decision of the consul ; the decisions of 
the plebeians {/>/(?/^z'5(:zVa) in their assembly bind- 
ing on all citizens ; tlie inviolability of the 
tribunes. " The recognition of plebeian mag- 
istrates and plebeian assemblies as parts of the 
Roman constitution. Deposition of the de- 
cemvirs ; restoration of consuls and tribunes. 

(2) Canuleian Laws 445 : Recognition of legal 
marriage {conniibiuni) between patricians and 
plebeians ; election of 6 Military Tribunes 
with consular power, a position open to patri- 


cians and plebeians alike. This last measure 
was to save the patrician consulship from 
being filled by a plebeian. 

(3) State offices won by the plebeians : Quaestor- 

ship 421, Consulship 367. Dictatorship 356, 
Censorship 339, Praetorship 336. 

(4) Licinian Rogations (Licinio=Sextian Laws) 

367, "Rome's great Reform Bill": Diminu- 
tion of the plebeian burden of debt ; a fair 
division of the public land ; limitation of 
public land to any one citizen, 500 acres or 
pasturage for 100 oxen and 500 sheep ; admis- 
sion of one plebeian, at least, to the consul- 
ship each year ; abolition of military tribunes ; 
adoption of free hired labor as well as slave 
labor by landowners. 

(5) Ogulnian Law, 300 : Increase of priestly 

offices in order to admit plebeians. 

(6) Hortensian Law, 287 : Full establishment of 

the power of the plebeian assembly ; abolition 
of the Senate's veto power in the legislation of 
the state. Full equalization of the two orders. 

Examination Questions on Patricians and Plebeians. 

1. Give an account of the effects which the increase of wealth resulting 

from the conquests of Rome had on the condition of tlie Plebs. 18/ /. 

2. Giitline briefly the struggle at Rome between the Patricians and the 

Plebeians, from its commencement down to the passing of the Mcinian 
Rojjaiions. Describe the legislation embodied in those statutes. 1895. 

3. Mention the provisions of the Valerio-Horatian Laws, of the Licinian 

Rogations, and of the legislation of Caius Gracchus. 1897. 

4. Explain the origin of the patrician and plebeian parties at Rome, and indi- 

cate briefly the political functions of the Tribunes and Cen.sors. 1901. 

5. Write notes on the nature of the full rights of Roman citizenship. 1902. 


I. War -with Veil and Tarquinii :— 

Attempt of these cities to re-instate the Tarquins ; their 
defeat on the Roman frontier. 


II. War with Etruria:— 

1 . Cause : Attempt of the Tarquins, with Etruscan aid 

under Porsena, to regain the throne of Rome. 

2. Siege of Rome. IvCgends of Horatius and Mucins Scae- 


3. Porsena's peace with Rome. 

Ill War with the Latins :— 

1. Cause : Attempt of the Tarqviins to recover the king- 

ship with L,atiii aid. 

2. Appointment of Lartius, Rome's first Dictator. 

3. Battle of Lake Regillus, 497 : Victory of the Romans 

over Mamilius, prince of Tusculum. 

4. Treaty with the Latins ; Shelter no longer to be given 

to the Tarquins. 

IV. War w^ith the Volscians and Aequians — 

1. Capture of Corioli by the Roman commander Cains 

Marcius Coriolanus. 

2. Exile of Coriolanus for oppression of the plebs. Attack 

on Rome by the Volscians under Coriolanus. 

3. Defeat of the Volscians, Latins, Hernicans by Camillus. 

4. Defeat of the Aequians at Mt. Algidus, 446, by Lucius 

Quinctius Cincinnatus, dictator. 

V. War with Veii :— 

1. Conquest of Veii by Camillus, 396. 

2. Extension of Roman territory to the Ciminian hills in 


3. Exile of Camillus for misappropriation of spoils. 

VI. Wars with the Gauls : - 

I. Decline of the Etruscan power. First invasion of the 

(a) Battle of the Allla, 390. Victory of the Gauls 
under Brennus over the Romans. 


{b) Seven months' siege of Rome. Defence of the 

Capitol by Manlius. 
(c) Sack of Rome by the Gauls, 390. 
{d ) Recall of Camillus. Defeat of the Gauls. A heavy 

ransom the price of their withdrawal. 

2. Second invasion, 361 : Legend of Titus Manlius Tor- 

quatus. Defeat of the Gauls. 

3. Third invasion, 349 : Legend of Marcus Valerius 

Corvus. Defeat of the Gauls. 

VII. Second War with the Latins, 340-338 :— 

1. Causes: Latin jealousy and rivalry ; Rome's treaty with 


2. Battle of Mt. Vesuvius, 340 : Victory of the Romans 

under Manlius and Decius. 

3. Rome's Conquest of Latium, " the close of the first stage 

in Rome's advance towards supremacy in Italy." 

4. Settlement of Latium : 5 Latin cities made part of the 

Roman State ; the rest with the colonies ranked as 
Latin allies of Rome the sovereign city. 

VIII. Samnite Wars, 343-295 :— 

1. First War, 343-341 : 

(a) Causes : Rome's aid to Capua and neighboring 
towns against Samnium the virtual ruler of Cam- 
pania. The struggle for supremacy in Italy. 

{b) Victory of the Romans at At. Qaurus, near 

[c) Treaty of peace : " Rome the recognized suzerain 
of the Campanian cities which had sought her aid. ' ' 
Capua and Cumae declared Roman and granted 
the civil rights of Roman citizenship. 

2. Second or Great "War, 327-304 : 

(a) Cause: Samnite depredations upon the Roman 

subjects of Campania. 
(6) Samnite allies : Tarentum, Etruria, Umbria. 

Roman allies : Apulia, Lucania. 


(f) Course of the War : 

(i) Defeat of the Samnites by Fabius Maximus, 
master of the horse. 

(2) Defeat of the Romans at Caudium (Caudine 
Forks) by Pontius, 321, at Lautulae, 314. 

(3) Defeat of the Samnites at Cinna by Fabius 

Maximus, 3 1 4. 

(4) Defeat of the Etruscans at Lake Vadimo, 309, 
and the Umbrians at Mevania, 307, by 
Fabius Maximus. 

(5) Roman invasion of Samnium ; capture of the 
capital, Bovianum, 304. 

^it) Treaty of peace : Saiiinium's acknowledgment of 

Roman supremacy. 
3. Third "War, 295-290 : 

(a) Causes: Samnite depredations in Tvucania. Union 

of Samnites, Ftruscans, Umbrians, Gauls against 

(/*) Defeat of the allied Gauls and Samnites at SentU 

num, 295. 
{c) Rout of the Gauls, 2S3. Annexation of vSenonian 

(d) Conquest of Samnium, Etruria, Umbria. " The 

vSamnites made the allies of Rome on equal terms 

and without any sacrifice of independence." 

IX W^ar with Tarentum, 281-?J72:- 

1. Causes: Rome's garrisons in Magna Graecia (Locri, 

Croton, Rhegium, Thurii). Jealousy over Rome's 
prosperity. Alleged Roman breach of treaty with Tar- 
entum. Destruction by the Tarentines of a Roman 
fleet near the harbor of Tarentum. 

2. The War : 

(a) Tarentum's allies : Pyrrhus (King of Epirus), 
Samnium, Lucania, Bruttium. 

{f>) Battle of Heraclea (Siris) 280 : Victory of Pyrr- 
hus over the Romans. Expulsion of the Roman 
garrisons from Magna Graecia. 


{c) Battle of Ascillun, 279 : Defeat of the Romans 

by Pyrrhus. 

(d) Pyrrhus in Sicily (278-276) as ally of the Sicilian 
Greeks against the Carthaginians. Rome's defeat 
of Samnites and Lucanians. 

[e) Battle of Benevetltum, 275 : Defeat of Pyrrhus ; 
his flight to Epirus. 

(/) Surrender of Tarentum, 272 : Its walls razed ; its 
fleet taken by Rome. 
3. Rome's complete control of all Italy. Consolidation 
of the whole Italic stock into a united whole. The 
first great period of Roman history. 

X. How Rome Governed and Was Governed :— 

I . Relation of the Conquered Nations to Rome : 

{a) The Latins : The favored allies of Rome. "The 
most efficient props of Roman supremacy. . .power- 
ful agents in the work of Romanizing Italy." 
Reward of citizenship and franchise to the faith- 
ful. Rights of intermarriage and commerce. 
{b) Latin colonies : " Communities founded by Rome, 
composed of men of Roman blood ; offshoots of 
Rome herself, constituting Roman garrisons." 
(r) Other Italians : Attached to Rome, isolated from 
each other. Related to Rome according to treaty. 
A measure of self-government. All local authority 
svibject to Rome's paramount authority. Service 
in Rome's wars as her allies. "Rome's sole right 
to make war, conclude treaties, coin mone}'." 
{d) How Rome kept Italy under her power: (i) By 

colonies, (2) By military highways. 
(e) Roman provinces : 

(i) Relation to Rome : Subject to disarmament, 
taxation, and government by a resident 
Roman magistrate or provincial governor 
(proconsul). Subjects not allies, with no 
share in Rome's government. 
(2) Provincial constitution : The rights and duties 


of province and governor decreed by the 
Senate. A measure of local self-government. 

(3) Powers of the Proconsul : A sole and irrespon- 
sible ruler ; no appeal from his decisions ; his 
power of life and deatli over the subject pro- 
vincials ; supplies and taxes of provinces at 
his free disposal ; freedom, of power to act 
backed by a Roman army. 

(4) Powers of the Quaestor or Paymaster : Subject 
to the governor's authority in financial matters; 
annual tenure of office. Dishonest, extortionate 
collection of provincial taxes the chief source 
of oppre-ssive government. "Illegal requisi- 
tions, systematic blackmailing, straightforward 

(5.) Lex Calpurnia, 149: Establishment of a special 
senatorial court at Rome to try cases of mag- 
isterial extortion, " the first recognized means 
of obtaining redress by the provincials." 

2. Rome's Chief State Ofl^cers : 

(a) Consul (established 509) : See I., section C. 

(5) Quaestor (509) : See I., section C. 

[c) Dictator (501) : Cho.seu by the Consul through 
the order of the Senate in times of emergency, 
with supreme authority during such crisis. 

(rf) Tribune (494): The people's magistrate or guard- 
ian of the rights of the plebs. Elected by the 
Comitia Tributa to make decrees and execute laws. 
All measures void without his consent ; the veto 
power over any measure. Two in number at first, 
then 5, then increased to 10. 

{e) Aedile (494) : Two in number ; police commis- 
sioners and commissioners of public works. 

( /■) Military Tribune (444) : Three to six in number. 
Elected from botli patricians and plebeians in the 
Comitia Curiata ; with consular powers of com- 
mand. Abolition of the office by the Licinian 
Rogations, 367. 


(i'-) Censor (443 ) : Elected from the patricians for 5 
years, later for 1% years. Duties: To take a 
census of, and classify or rank the people, to pre- 
pare Senate lists, to allot contracts for public 
works, to investigate private life. The most re- 
sponsible position in the state ; the prop of the 
nobility, and the controlling power in Senate ap- 
pointments. After 265 no person could be twice 

[h) Praetor (366) : One of. the chief magistrates next 
to the consuls. A chief justice of the state. Origi- 
nally the name given to the consul. Duties : -To 
administer justice, to act as consul in the latter's 
absence. Eligible as governor in a Roman province. 
Pro-praetor, a praetor continued in power beyond 
the time fixed. 

(i) Proconsul (327): A magistrate or governor 
sent out by the Senate to govern a province wdtb 
consular power for one year. Usually an ex-consul 
or substitute, hence the name, proconsul. 

(y ) Prefect : "A representative of the Roman praetor 
sent out for a year to admini-ter justice in the 
colonies and have charge over communities or 
prefectures where no organized local government 
existed." Later the term meant Police Magistrate 
or Chief of Police. 

{k) Pontiffs and Augurs : Superintendents in mat- 
ters of religion. 

Powers of the Consuls : 

[a) One-year kings in all but name. 

{b) Power to summon the people to the comitia either 

to elect magistrates, pass laws, or try offenders. 
{c) Power to nominate (till 350), summon, presidt 

over, consult the Senate ; supreme judges. 
{d) Supreme executive officers of the state. 
{e) Power to enroll citizens for war, enforce discipline. 

lead in battle, select the tribunes of the soldiers. 
Checks on the Consulate Po-wer : 

Rome's conoukst oi' nwi.v. 21 

[a) Their dual office ; annual tenure ; laws of appeal ; 
veto power of the Tribunes. 

(6) The Senate : 

(i) Mode of election : Chosen first by the Kings, 
then by the Consuls, after 300 by tlie Censors. 
The office open to plebeians. 

(2) Term of office : For life or good conduct. 

(3) Powers : " An Advisory Committee or standing 
council of men experienced in public busi- 
ness." Control of the treasury and of public 
works. Right to initiate legislation, annex 
provinces and provide for their government, 
control supplies. 

(4) Administrative functions : Cases of felony and 
treason ; disputes between allies, foreign 
affairs, questions of war and peace, the levy of 

(c) Officers of the state (see No. 2). 
((/) Roman Assemblies (see Section B). 

5. The Roman Army : 

(a) Soldiers :'' All citizens from 17 to 45 liable to 
military service, furnishing their own arms and 
serving without pay, the rich as cavalry, the rest 
as infantry ; the bulk of the army from subject 
towns." "Service in the army was the first duty 
and the highest privilege of the fully qualified 

{b) Legions : Brigades at first of 3,000 infantry and 
300 cavalry, later of 3,000 heavy-armed, 1,200 light- 
armed infantr}', and 300 cavalry." A legion of 
allies, 10,000. 

(r) Officers: "Six military tribunes for each legion, 
nominated by the consuls, elected by the tribes." 

6. Roman Roads: " Military highways of a broad, level, 

permanent character, connecting Rome with the most 
distant parts of her Empire." 



Examination Questions on Rome's Conquest of Italy. 

1. describe the various Greek and Roman Assemblies of the i>eopl(j. 1875. 
•i. Write notes on Praetor, Quaestor, Tribune, Dictator, Comitia Tributa. 
Optimates. 1876. 

3. Write notes explaining of the terms Consul. Dictator, Cen<or 

Tribune of the plebs, Augur, Comitia. 1879. 

4. Specify very briefly what was noble or heroic in the lives and careers of 

the following: Coriolanus, Cincinuatus, Camillus, Regulu.s, Fabius 
Maximus. 1893. 

o. Write historical and explanatorv notes on : Roman Citizenship, Consuls, 
Tribunes, Quaestors, Censors, Praetors, Aediles. 1898. 

6. In what respects did the Roman republic differ from a modern republic ' 

Show how Rome was governed. 1900. 

7. Write notes on : (a) the powers of the Roman Senate under the Republic ; 

lb) plebiseita: ir) the office of Tribune; Id) Tiberius Sempronius- 
(.racchns. 1902. 


1. Carthag-e :— 

1. Commercial, intellectual, political endowments of the 

Phoenicians (Lat. Foeni ur Punici) ; maritime enter- 
prise. Carthage a colony of Tyre. 

2. Growth of Carthage : 

[a) Founding of Carthage about 853. 

{b) Rapid prosperity, agricultural, commercial, indus- 
trial ; control of Western Mediterranean Sea trade. 

(c) Incomparable advantages of situation ; rich vicin- 
ity, splendid harbor. 

i^d) Energetic activity of its people, employment of 

(^) Conquest of the native states of Africa, and neigh- 
boring Phoenician towns and cities, except Utica. 
The capital of a mighty North African Empire. 

/") Maritime and colonial dominions: Spain, Balearic 
Isles, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Aegatian Is., I^ip- 
arean Is., Melita, Elba. Rivalry with Syracuse for 
maritime supremacy. 

3. Government : Oligarchic system. 


4. Army : The Sacred Band of 2,500 citizens of high rank ; 

mercenary soldiers. 

5. Sources of Carthage's weakness : Her oligarchic system ; 

her harshness towards African subjects and consequent 
disaffection ; her mercenary soldiery ; her meddlesome 
jealousy concerning her affairs abroad. 

11 First Punic War, 264 241 :— 

1. Cavises : 

(a) Extension of Carthaginian power in Sicily. 

(3) Rivalry and jealousy between Rome and Carthage. 

{c) The Messana affair : 

(i) Seizure of Messana by the mercenary Mamer- 

tines of Campania ; their plunder of the 

surrounding country. 

(2) Union of Greeks and Cartjiaginians against the 
Italian pirates. 

(3) Siege of Messana by Hiero, King of Syracuse. 

(4) Appeal of the besieged Mamertines to the 
Romans, and offer to place Messana under 
Rome's suzerainty. 

(5) Carthaginian seizure of the citadel and harbor 
of Messana. 

2. The War : 

{a) Invasion of Sicily by the Romans under Appius 
Claudius. Occupation of Messana. The Cartha- 
ginians driven to the north-west, the Syracusans 
to the south-east of the island. Treaty between 
Rome and Syracuse. 

{^) Roman capture of Agrigentum, 262. 

(r) Battle of Mylae, 260 : Naval victory of the 

Romans under Duilius, 
((/) Battle of Ecnomus, 256: Naval victory of tlie 

Ronipus under Regulus and Manlius. 
(e) Invasion of Africa by Regulus and Manlius, 256. 

(i) Recall of Manlius with a large force to Rome. 


(2) Battle of Carthage, 255 : Defeat of Regulus 
by the Spartan Xanthippus. Regulus and 2000 
of his troops made prisoners. 
(/) Wreck of -first Roman fleet (8c) off Cape Pachy- 

nus, 255. 
{g) Roman capture of fortress Panormus, 254. 
{/t) Wreck of second Roman fleet off Cape Palinurus, 

(i) Failure of Roman seige of Lilybaeum, 250. 
(/) Battle of Drepanum, 249: Naval victory of 

Adherbal over Appius Claudius. 
(k) Wreck of third Roman fleet off Cape Pachynus, 

(/) Hamilcar's seizure of the two fortresses in N. vSicily, 

Mt. Ercte, Mt. Ervx, and ravage of the coasts of 

(;«) Battle of the Aegatian Is ,241 :— Naval victory of 

the consul Catulus. 
3. Terms of Peace, 241 : 

{a) Carthage's abandonment of Sicily, Rome's first 

(6) Her restoration of Roman prisoners. 
{c ) Her payment of 2300 talents (war indemnity) in 10 


III. Second Punic War, 218-201 :- 

1. Causes: 

{a ) Annexation of Corsica and Sardinia by the Romans 

as Roman provinces, 238. 
('yj Extension of Carthaginian empire in Spain under 

Hamilcar, Hasdrubal (son-in-law), and Hannibal 

(son). New Carthage its capital. 
{c) Hannibal's capture of Saguntum, a Greek city in 

alliance with Rome, 219. Appeal of the Saguntines 

to Rome. 

2. The War: 

the; PUNIC WARS. 25 

[a) Hannibal's great 5 months' march from Spain to 
Italy. His force, 26,000 ; Roman available force 
including allies 700,000. 

{f>) Battle of the Ticinus, 218 : Defeat of the Romans 
under J'ublius Cornelius Scipio. 

( <:) Battle of the Trebia, 2 1 8 : Defeat of the Romans 
under Scipio and Sempronius. 

((/) Battle of Lake Trasimenus, 217: Annihilation 
of the Roman army, including the consul Flam- 

(e) Appointment of O. Fabius Maximus as Dictator. 
Defensive preparations at Rome. Fabian policy 
of prudence, caution, and avoidance of a general 
engagement with Hannibal. 

{/) Battle of Cannae, 216 : Disastrous defeat of the 
Romans imder the cc^nsuls Aemilius Paulus and 
Vano. Panic at Rome. 

(if) Hannibal's new allies: Campania, S. Italy, Syra- 
cuse, Macedonia. 

(7/ ) Hannibal's futile march on Rome. 

(/) Siege and capture of Syracuse by Metellus, 212. 

(J) The War in Spain : Capture of Saguntum by the 
Romans, 215. Defeat and death of Publius and 
Cneius Scipio by Hasdrubal at Ibera, 212. 
Indecisivre battle of Baecula, 209, between the 
forces of Hasdrubal and the Romans under Publius 
Coriielius Scipio, son of Publius the Consul. Rout 
of the Carthaginians by Scipio in the second battle 
of Baecula, 206. Complete expulsion of the 
Carthaginians from Spain. 

(k) Hasdrubal's march to Italy. Battle of Metaurus, 
207 : Defeat and death of Hasdrubal. 

(/) Recapture of Tarentum and Capua by the Romans. 
Harsh treatment of recalcitrant cities. Hannibal 
at bay for four years in Bruttium. 

(in) P. Cornelius Scipio's invasion of Africa, 204 : 
(1) Recall of Hannibal from Italy. 


(2) Battle of Zama, 202 : Defeat of Hannibal by 

Scipio (Africanus). 
3. Terms of Peace, 201 : 

(a) Carthage's retenlioti of African possessions only. 
(5) Her surrender of all prisoners, and all but 10 ships. 
(r) Her payment of 10,000 talents in 50 years. 
{d) Her recognition of Masinissa (Rome's ally) as 

king of Nuniidia. 
{e) Her promise not to make war in Africa without 
Rome's consent. 

IV. Third Punic War, 149-146 :- 

1. Causes : 

[a) Reviving prosperity at Carthage. 

[b) Masinissa's harassing raids and encroachments 
on Carthage ; futile protests of Carthage to Rome. 
War with Masinissa. 

ic) Rome's expulsion of Hannibal from Carthage, 195. 
{d) Cato's influence urging the destruction of Carthage. 
{e) Insolent demands of Rome upon the Punic capital. 

2. Siege of Carthage, 149=146 : Destruction of the city 

by P. Cornelius Scipio, grandson by adoption of Uie 
conqueror of Hannibal. "The greatest blot. on the 
reputation of the Romans." 

3. Annexation of the Carthag-inian Dominions. Rome 

mistress of the western ^lediterraneau. 

Examination Questions on Tlie Punic Wars. 

1, Draw a rough map of the Roman dominions at the end of the Second 

Punic War, indicating ia the proper place the name of each conquered 
people. 1S76. 

2, Compare the form of government iu Rome at the commencement of the 

Punic Wars with the forms of Athenian and Spartan pnvernments re- 
spectively at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. 1878. 

.3. Sketch briefly the career of Hannibal. 1878. 

.4. Write brief notes on "The Fall of Carthage." 1880. 


5. Give a rfeumd of the Scconrl Punic War. 1R80. 

0. Describe, with names and dates, the Secon<l runic War. ISSl. 

7. Detail the proceedinirs of Hannibal from tlic beginning of the Second 

Punic War to the talcing of Tareiitvnn. ISSl. 

8. Sketch the internal and external condition of Rome at the close of the 

Third Punic War. 1S82. 

9. Trace briefly the conquest of Carthage and of Greece by Rome. 1885. 

10. Describe briefly the influence on the character of the Romans of their 
victories over the Carthaginians. 189:1. 

11. Tell briefly the story of the Second Punic War down to tlie battle of 
Cannae. State the cause of the war, and show to what extent Hannibal 
displayed the qualities of a great leader in his conduct of the struggle. 

12. Detail the circmnstanoes leading to the earliest outbreak of hostilities 
between Rome and Carthage, and narrate the chief events of the First 
Punic War. 1896. 

13. Tell briefly the story of the Second PuTiic War. ITnw did the term 
" Punic " come to be used fcr "Carthaginian " ? 1S97. 

14. Give an account of the principal exploits of Hannilial in the war with 
Rome. 1898. 

15. Write notes on (a) the career of Hannibal, (6) Hasdrubal. 1902. 

Iti. Write notes on Hannibal's position after the battle of Cannae. 1902. 
IT. Explain the rivalrv between Rome ;ind Carthage, and state the icsult of 
the First Punic War. 19(^:2. 


I. Macedonian Wars :— 

I. First War, 214-205: 

{a) Causes : Alliance of Philip of Macedon with Han- 
nibal ; Philip's threatened invasion of Italy ; alli- 
ance of Rome, Aetolia, Athens, Sparta, Pergamus. 

{b) Desultory warfare. Ro,me occupied with the 
Pitnic Wars. Frustration of Philip's designs by 
the coalition of Greek states against him. 

{c) Terms of peace. 
?. Second War, 200-196 : 

{a) Causes : Philip's alliance with Antiochus, King of 
Syria, for the partition of the domitiions of Egypt, 
the ally of Rome since 273 ; Rome's declaration of 
war against Philip for entering the territory of 
Athens, the ally of Rome. 

{b) The War- 


(t) Allies of Rome: Kgypt, Rhodes, Pergainu^ 
and most of the Greek cities. 

(2) Battle of Cyuoscephalae, 197: Victory of 
the Romans under the consul Flaminius. 

(3) Capture of Corinth by t'ue Romans. 

(4) Defeat of Philip in Caria by the Rhodians. 

(5) Proclamation by of the indepen- 
dence of Greece, 196. " A friendly and inde- 
pendent Greece would be at once a check on 
Macedon, a barrier against aggression from 
the East, and a promising field for Roman 
commerce. ' ' 

(r) Terms of Peace, 196 : 

(i) Philip to pay 1000 talents (war indemnity) to 

(2) To w'age no war, make no alliances without 
Rome's consent. 

(3) To give up all his possessions in Greece, 
Thrace, Aegean Is., Asia Minor. 

3. Third War, 168 : 

(a) Causes: Philip's preparations to attack Rome. 
Intrigues of his son and successor, Perseus, to 
provoke hostility between Greeks and Romans, 
Restlessness and discontent in Greece, 
(^j The War: 

(i) First battle of Pydna. 168 : Victory of the 
Romans under Aemilius Paulus. Fxtinction 
of the Macedonian monarchy. 
(2) Attempt of Andriscus, the Pretender, to revive 
it. His defeat in the second battle of Pydna, 
(r) Results : 

(i) Macedonia a Roman province, 148. Conquest 
of Greece, 14S. 

.\. Conquest of Greece, 148 : 

[a) Causes : Rome's accusation against Greece of 


IN 133 B C. 

romp:'s conquest of the east. 29 

sympathy and collusion with Macedonia. Re- 
moval of suspected Greeks, as hostages, to Italy. 
Rise of the Acliaeans against Rome. 

(b) Rome's destruction of Corinth, Thebes, Chalcis. 
The end of Grecian freedom. Greece now a 
Roman province called Achaia. Exaction of 
tribute by Rome. Introduction of the provincial 
system of " disarmament, isolation, and taxation." 

(.') Direct influence of Greek learning and civiliza- 
tion : Rome's admiration for, and adoption of, the 
Greek language, literature, art, philosophy, cus- 

II Syrian War, 192-189 :- 

r . Causes : 

(a) Plans of Antiochus III of Syria to conquer Eurojte. 

(b) His seizure of Egypt's possessions in A. Minor and 

(c) His invasion of A. Minor and Greece. Rome's 
aid to Greece. 

2. The "War : 

{a) Battle of Thermopylae, 191 : Victory of the 
Romans under Glabrio. Flight of Antiochus to 


(b) Lucius Scipio, brother of the conqueror of Hanni- 
bal, in Asia Minor. Battle of Jlagnesia (Lydia) 
190 . Victory of the Romans under vScipio. 

3. Terms of Peace, 189 : 

(a) Antiochus to pay 15,000 talents (war indemnity). 
{b) To surrender his European possessions, and Asiatic 

dominions west of Mt. Taurus. 
{(-) To declare the Asiatic Greek cities to be free 

independent allies of Rome. 

(d) To be restricted in his rights of war and navigation. 

(c) To surrender Hannibal. 
4.. Chief results to Rome • 


(a) Extension of Roman sway over the province of 
Asia (Mysia, Lydia, Ionia, Caria), and over Syria. 

{^) Alliances with Pontus and Cappadocia. 

[c) Acknowledgment by Egypt of Rome's supremacy, 
1 68. 

III. Mithradatic Wars, 88-61 :- 

I. First War, 88-84 : 

(a) Causes: 

(i) Mithradates VI's. hatred of Rome for taking 
from Pontus, Phrygia, a Roman gift to his 

(2) His resolve to free Asia from Roman sway. 

(3) His extension of the Pontian dominions to 
include Bilhynia, Cappadocia, Phrygia, and 
Galatia, and around the Euxine. 

(4) His league with Italian States against Rome. 
Enlistment of Thracian, Scythian, and Col- 
chian tribes, as well as Armenia and Parthia 
as allies. 

(^«) The War: 

(i) Defeat and massacre of the Romans. Mithra- 
dates master of A. Minor. 

(2) Invasion of Greece by Archelaus the Pontic 
general. Alliance with the Peloponnesians, 
Athenians, and Boeotians. 

(3) Sulla, the Roman consul and commander in 
Greece. His victories at Chaeronea, 86, and 
at Orchomenus, 85. Surrender and sack of 
Athens. Destruction of the Peiraeus. 

[c) Terms of peace : Mithradates' surrender of all 

conquests and 70 ships of war ; payment of 2000 

{d) Sulla's punishment of the Greek rebels in Europe 

and Asia: Executions, "robbery, devastation. 

2. Second War, 83-82 : 


(«) Cause : Refusal of Mithradates to surrender Cap- 

{b) The War : 

(i) Defeat of the Romans at Sinope, the capital of 

(3) Defeat of Mithradates by Sulla. 

ic) Truce : Mithradates in possession of a part of Cap- 

Third War, 73-61 : 

[a) Cause : Refusal of Mithradates to recognize Bithy- 

nia as a Roman province. 
(,/)) The War : 

{i) Mithradates' unsuccessful siege of Cyzicus. 

His retreat to Pontus. 
(2) Defeat of Mithradates near Cablra. His flight 

to his son-in-law, Tigranes, King of Armenia 

and of Syria. 
.3) Battle of Tigranocerta, 69: Defeat of 

Tigranes by LucuUus. 

(4) Battle of Artaxata, 68 : Defeat of Mithradates 
and Tigranes by LucuUus. 

(5) Mutiny in the Roman army. Recovery of 
Pontus by Mithradates. Recall of LucuUus. 
Pompey the Roman commander. 

(6) Pompe3''s alliance with Parthia. Break-up of 
the league between Mithradates and Tigranes. 
Submission of the latter. 

(7) Blockade of Pontus by the Roman fleet. 
vSurprise and defeat of Mithradates. 

(S) Annexation of Syria by Pompey, 63. 

(9) Revolt of Pharnacei., Mithradates' son. Suicide 

of Mithradates, 63. Submission of Pharnaces 

to Pompey. 

[c) Results of the War ; 

( 1 ) Rome's annexation of the East to the Euphra- 
tes and to Egypt. 


(2) Responsibility of Rome in " protecting the 
Greek East against the advance of a purely 
Oriental power." 

Examination Questions on Rome's Conquest of the East. 

1 Give an outline cf the wars between Rome and Maoedon. ISTT. 

2 State, in chronological order, with dates, the conquests of Rome from 

202 to in.3. 1882. 

3. Give an account of the Roman Republic in its highest .state of develop- 

ment. 18S4. 

4. Relate the history "of the Roman AVar against .\ntiochus. 1884. 

5. Trace the course of the Roman conquest of Greece from the beginning of 

the Second Macedonian War to the fall of Corinth. 18b5. 

6. Describe briefly the influence on the character of the Romans of their 

victories over "the Greeks. 1S9.S. 

7. Name, locate and write t>rief notes on 3 places famous in connection with 

the Wars with Mithradates. 1894 

8. Narrate the events that first brought Rome into full contact with' Greek 

civilization. Show how and in what respects (ireek civilization influ- 
enced Roman life and literature. 1898. 


I. The Need for Reform :— 

1. The Nobility (Optimates) : A plebeo-patrician aristoc- 

racy inclurling the senate, the nobles, the knights 
(equites), the cajntalists or the part)- of wealth. Their 
monopoly of political power and the offices of state. 
The senate and magistrates, the mouthpieces of the 
new aristocracy. The legionary cavalr}', an aristocra- 
tic corps, serving as a mounted guard of nobles. 

2. New Senatorial Government of the Roman State ; 

the actual sovereign authority ; 

{a} A remodelling of the constitution according to the 
views of the nobility. Appointment of officers 
and civil magistrates on birth and seniority. 
Monopoly of power by the rich and selfish nobles. 

Thk gkacchi. 33 

(b) Senatorial control : Of the forces, the organization 
and government of the provinces, negotiations, 
alliances, colonies, allotment of lands, finances. 
Unconstitutional control of the magistrates (even 
the tribunes), the courts, and the popular assembly. 
"The senate was master alike of all the income 
and of all the expenditure of the state." 

{c) Senatorial decrees : " Gradually acquired some- 
thing of the binding power of statutes.'' "The 
decree of the senate could suspend for a time the 
operation of a law." 

(d) The Assembly : Decline of its power under sena- 
torial control. Difficulty of calling ils members 
together for consultation. Absence of deliberative 

(e) Results of senatorial rule : Decline in the admin- 
istration as to military discipline, justice, and 
finances. Selfish exclusiveness, corruption, brib- 
ery, at home and abroad. 

Provincial nisgovernment : 

(a) Rapacity of provincial governors (proconsuls) ; 
legalized military tyranny ; plunder of conquered 
cities and states. "The provinces an attractive 
field for money-making." 

(5) Scandalous abuse of grain requisitions from the 

{c) Difficulty of redress or justice for oppressed pro- 
vincials. Wholesale bribery of judges by the 
governors when brought to trial for misgovern- 

[d) " Wreck of a consistent Imperial policy because of 
the independence of the provincial rulers ; no 
settled frontier policy, no proper adjustment of 
taxation, no proper estimate and control of Imper- 
ial expenditure possible." 

Political Discontent : 

(a) Purchase of the magistracy by the rich. Bribery 
of the electorate bj' wealthy agitators and poli- 

^4 Roman history in brie?. 

ticians. Partisan followers of wealthy, ambitious 
{d) Discontent of the Italians over Rome's refusal of 
the franchise, and over her harsh treatment of 
states that had joined Hannibal. Her treatment of 
Italians as subjects, not equals, and as unworthy 
of Roman citizenship. 
5. Social Discontent : 

(a) Destruction of civic equality and solidarity through 
the concentration of wealth and public lands in 
the hands of the few. 

(d) Greed of Roman money-lenders, merchants, con- 
tractors, speculators, tax-gatherers. 

(r) Era of large estates, of great cattle .farms or 
pleasure grounds ; increase of slave labor ; disap- 
pearance of the small independent landowner : 
decay of agriculture and of tree labor. The sword 
more profitable than the plow. The importation 
of foreign grain destructive of home industry. 

{d) Increase of the idle worthless rabble at Rome, 
amused and fed by the rich. The city more at- 
tractive than the country. - 

(e) Absence of simplicity and frugality ; love of splen- 
dor, luxur}-, extravagance ; craving for wealth. 

{/) Growing deterioration of Roman character ; am- 
bition for titles, honors, dignities. 

II. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.— 

1. Ancestry: Grandson of Scipio Afncanus the elder; 

son of Tiberius Gracchus, Governor of Spain, and 
Cornelia the most accomplished woman of her time. 

2. Character and ability: "A champion of Roman 

liberty." Of personal charm and noble integrity. 
"Patriotic, unselfish, gifted, and highly educated. . . 
An eloquent speaker, a great soldier and adminis- 
trator. ' ' 

3. Proposed Reforms of Gracchus the Tribune, 133 : 

(a) Re-enactment of the Licinian Laws to restore 

THK r.RACCHi. 35 

farming interests and an independent middle class, 
and to use the public lands, the property of the 
Roman people, for their benefit. 
(i) Distribution of foreign public land among the 
poor for a nominal rent. Occupation of public 
land reduced to a maximum size of looo acres. 

(c) Limitation of the term of military service to 1 7 
years of age. 

(d) Right of appeal in civil and criminal cases. 

{e) Admission of Italian allies to full citizenship and 
the franchise. 
4. Murder of Gracclitis and 300 of his folloAvers by 
the Senatorial Party, 132 : 

III. Caius Sempronius Gracchus : - 

1. Character: "A champion of Roman liberty. . .More 

highly gifted than his brother Tiberius." An orator, 
statesman, patriot, reformer. The avowed enemy of 
the Senate. 

2. Early service as Quaestor in Sardinia, 126. Return to 

Rome, 124. 

3. Proposed Reforms of Caius Gracchus the Tribune, 

123 : 

(a) Limitation of the senate's freedom of action in 
assigning the provinces. 

{b) Regulation of taxation in the provinces. Preven- 
tion of extortionate taxes. 

(c) Limitation of the age of military service to 17. 
State equipment of troops. 

{d) Withdrawal from the senate their control of the 
trial of cases of provincial misgovernment. 

(e) Deposition of incapable officers. 
(/) Re-enactment of the Licinian Law. 

(,?■) Overthrow of senatorial government ; restoration 
of the sovereigntv of the assembly and the power 
of magistrates (tribunes) of the people. 

{k) Admission of all the Italians to the franchise. 


(/) Founding of citizen colonies in Italy and abroad, 
(y) Distribution to the people of public provincial 

grain at a nominal price. 
(k) Abolition of capital punishment for Romans. 
(/) Construction of great public roads. 
(?«) Selection of jurymen from the knights instead of 

from the senate. 
4. Murder of Caius Gracchus by the senatorial pa^ty. 

IV. Outcome of the Struggle for Reform :— 

1. An end to agrarian reforms, and to colonization. 

2. Delay of the franchise to Italian states. Continuation of 

the principle of force and selfishness. 

3. Increase of the power of the senate. 

4. Conversion of public lands into private property. 

5. Concentration: of power in the army and in army leaders. 

Their coercion of the Senate. Systematic corruption 
of the mob in the P^orum and in the market. "Bread 
for nothing and games for ever ! " 

6. Break-up of the old traditional republican beliefs, 

usages, and constitution. 

7. Beginning of a revolutionary era, resulting in the over- 

throw of the Constitution and the Republic. 

Examination Questions on the Gracchi. 

1. Tell what j'ou know of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. 1877. 

2. Note briefly the Seipio firen-s and the Gracchus gens and the part^; ]ilayt'<l 

by their principal mernbers in Roman History. 1878. 

3. Give an account of the reforms proposed by the Gracchi. 1879. 

4. Sketch the career of Caius Sempronius Gracchus and give the leading 

provisions of the leges Semproniar. 1881. 

5. Describe the cliaracter and career of Caius Gracchus or of Lucius Sulla. 


6. Mention the principal events in the struggle between the plebs and the 

aristocracy from the time of the Gracchi to the death of Sulla. 1883. 

7. Give an account of the social and political struggles in Rome from the 

time of the Gracchi to the death of bulla. 


8. Remark on the political measures proposed bv C Sempronius Graccluts. 


9. Write a brief account of the life and character of amj two of the following : 

Marius, Pompeius, Caius Gracchus. 1891. 

10. Describe the growth of the political and social evils in the Roman 
Republic which the reforms of the Gracchi were designed lo remove, 
and give some account of the legislative measures passed by the younger 
Gracchus. 18;)6. 

11. Describe the social and political condition of Rome at the time of the 
Gracchi. 1899. 

12. What were the evils that Tiberius and Caius Gracchus tried to remedy? 
What was the remedy they propose<i, and how far were they successful? 

13. Discuss the causes and the political effects of the free distribution of corn 
to the Roman populace. 1901. 

14. Write notes on Caius Gracchus, 1901. 

15. Write notes on the chief causes of the decline of jmblic virtue at Rome, 

16. Write notes on Tiberius. Sem])ronius Gracchus. 19:!_'. 


I. Insurrections : — 

1. In Spain, 143-133 : 

[a) Cause : Roman misrule, plunder, oppressive taxa- 

{b) Revolt of Lusitania under Viriathus. His assassina- 
tion. Submission of the Lusitanians. 

{c) Revolt of Celtiberia : vSicge of Numantia, 141= 
^33y ^y Scipio Africanus the younger ; capitulation 
through famine ; destruction of the city. Conquest 
of Spain. 

2. In Sicily, 135-132: 

(a) Cause : Slave oppression. 
{b) Revolt of 200,000 slaves. 
(c) Slaughter of the slaves by the Romans. 

3. InNumidia, 111-104: 

{a) Cause : Refusal of King Jugurtha to recognize 

Rome's authority. 
i^) Jugurtha's successful resistance through bribery of 

Roman officials. 
(c) Roman invasion of Africa ; 


( I ) Defeat of the Numidiaus by the Consul Metellus. 
(2j Election of Cains Marius as Consul, 107. Re- 
call of Metellus. 

(3) Success of the expedition under :Marius and 

Sulla his brilliant lieutenant and distinguished 
cavalry officer. Capture of Jugurtha ; his 
death by starvation in a Roman dungeon. 

(4) Annexation of Numidia as a Roman province. 

XI The Cimbrian War, 113-101 — 

1. Cause : Inroads of the Cimbri and Teutones from the 

Baltic. Devastation of Transalpine Gaul and Helvetia 
by the barbarians. The frontiers of Italy in danger. 

2. Battle of Arausio, 105 : Terrible defeat of the Romans. 

3. Battle of Aquae Sextiae, 102 : Annihilation of the Teu- 

tones by the Romans under Marius. 

4. Battle of Campi Raudii, lOl : Destruction of the Cim- 

bri by Marius. 

III. The Social War, 90-88 — 

1 . Causes : — 

(a) Rome's denial of the franchise and citizenship to 
the Italian slates ; increased burdens ; diminution 
of ancient privileges ; domineering exclusive atti- 
tude of Roman government ; assassination of 
tribune Drusus for proposing enfranchisement 

{/)) Alliance of the Italian states against Rome, (except 
Etruria, Umbria, and Latium). 

(c) Establishment of an independent Italian Republic 
with a capital re-named Italica (Corfinium). 

2. Rome's promise of the franchise to the Latin colonies 

and other communities not in a state of revolt. 

3. Samnium's leading part in the revolt ; defeat of a 

Roman arm}-. Sulla's defeat of the Samnites. 

4. Acceptance of Rome's off er of the franchise by all the 

states except Samnium and Lucania. The enfranchise- 
ment of Italy. 


IV. Civil "War betvreen Marius and Sulla, 88-8?i :- 
I. Cains Darius, 157=86 : 

(a) Early service : 

(i) In the siege of Numantia, 134. 

(2) His election as tribune 119, as praetor, 115. 
His military ability in the subjugation of 
Western Spain. 

(3) In the Jugurthine War, 111-106. First as 
lieutenant of Metellus, then as consul and 
commander (107). Triumph of Marius in con- 
junction with Sulla. 

(4) In the Cimbrian War, 113-101. Marius "the 
savior of his country." His election as consul 
for the 5th time. 

(5) In the Social War, 90-8S. 

(-(^] Marius tribune and leader of the popular party, 
119. Author of a bill to secure the free use of 
the ballot at elections. "Recklessness and 
violence of the popular leaders. . .Military inter- 
ference in political controversies." Reorganization 
of the Roman army : Professional soldiery instead 
of a citizen militia ; " the ready tool of despotism 
and for sub.sequent military imperialism." 

(r) Marriage of INIarius and Julia, the aunt of Julius 

id) Character of Marius: " One of the most striking 
figures in Roman history. . .A plain, rough, blunt, 
though ver}- able soldier, without any intellectual 
culture." A failure as a politician and a states- 
man ; a fanatical, superstitious, cruel, passionate, 
boorish tyrant, guilty of acts of bloody vengeance. 
" By temperament and training a hater of the 
polished and effeminate nobles who filled the 
senate." " The curse and pest of Rome in his old 

?.. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, 138=78 : 

{a) Early Service : 


(ij In the Jugurlhine War, 111-106. Quaestor to 
Marius ; popular with the soldiers. " Rome's 
soldiers from Sulla's time began to drink, 
make love, have a taste for works of art, rob 
temples and confound things sacred and pro- 

(2) In the Cimbrian War, 111-106. 

(3) In the Social War, 90-88. 
(b) His election as praetor, 93. 

{c) Governor of Cilicia, 92. Alliance with the Parth- 

ians against Mithradates. 
id) Sulla leader of the patrician party and consul, 88. 
ic) Appointment of Sulla as commander-in-chief 

against ]Mithradates. 

3. Struggle of the Rivals, or The First Civil War, 

88-86 : 

(d) Ixiot at Rome, at the instigation of Marius, over 
Sulla's appointment. Sulla's escape to his army 
in Campania. Return to Rome with the army. 
Flight of jMarius to Africa. 

{b) Sulla's departure for the East, 87. Capture of 
Greece. Sack of Athens. 

(r) The Assembl5^'s appointment of Marius as com- 
mander in the East. Recall of Marius. Cinna and 
Marius consuls. Massacre of their opponents. 

(flf) Death of Marius, 86. Sole despotic rule of Cinna. 
His Samnite and Lucanian allies. 

(e) Sulla's peace with Mithradates, 84. 

(/) Murder of Cinna in a mutiny of his soldiers. 

( «-) Return of Sulla to Italy, 83. 

(/z) Battle of PraenCSte, 82 : Victory of Sulla, Pom- 
pey, Crassus, Lucullus, over the younger Marius. 
Rout of the Samnites and Lncanians at the gates 
of Rome. "Ruthless desolation of Samnium and 
Lucania." Suicide of the younger Marius. " Sulla 
master of Rome and of the Roman world." 

4. Sulla's administration, 82-78 : 


(a) Sulla's appointment as Dictator. " Ivmperor cf 
Rome with ab.solute power over the life and for- 
tunes of ever}- Roman citizen." 
(/>) Sulla's proscription lists: " murders 
and confiscations throuj^hout Rome and Italy. 
Bloodshed, violence, and audacious illegality, 
instead of the restoration of order and constitu- 
tional government." 
(r) Sulla's so-called Reforms : 

(i) Restoration to power of the vSenate and the 
nol)ility. Investment of the Senate (filled 
with Sulla's creations) with full control over 
the state, magistrates, courts, provinces. 

(2) Restriction of the powers of the tribunes. 

(3) Assignment of military colonies, or farms in 
Italy to his soldiers. 

(4) " Confiscation of pul^lic lands to the injury and 
ruin of the old Italian freeholders and farmers. ' 

(5) Limitation of the consulship to a one-year 

(6) Increase of praetors 6 to 8, of quaestors to 20, 
of priests. 

(7) Control of priestly colleges by the senate. 

(8) Extension of Lex Calpurnia to cover briberj-, 
treason, and the chief criminal offences. 
" The foundation of Roman criminal law." 

(9) Ineligibility for office of proscribed families. 

(10) Appointment of the judges of supreme courts 
from the senators. 

(11) Formation of a body-guard of Cornelians for 
his person. 

n. Sulla's character and ability: "Both as a general 
and as a politician he stands in the foremost rank of 
the remarkable figures of all time." Cultured, 
learned ; ambitious, zealous, able, forceful ; cynical, 
debauched, cold-blooded, deliberately cruel. "Half 
lion, half fox, with a life policy of blood and iron." 


V. Revolt of the Gladiators, 73-71 :— 

1. Escape of gladiators from the gladiators' training 

school at Capua ; Spartacus the leader. 

2. Alliance of gladiators, outlaws, slaves, and discontented 

Italians (70,000). 

3. Their devastation of S. Italy, and defeat of the Roman 

armies. Spartacus master of S. Italy. 

4. Defeat of the rebels bj' Crassus at Rhegitim, 71, and by 

Pompey and Crassus at Petelia, 71. 

Examination Questions on Social and Civil Wars: 

1. Sketch the history of the struggle of the Italian races for the Roman 

franchise. 1S77. 

2. Give an account of the causes, course and results of the Social War. 1879. 
3 Describe the character and career of Caius Gracchus or of Lucius Sulla- 


4. Write notes on Cato the Censor, optimates, Spartacus. 1882. 

5. What changes in the Constitution of Rome were effected hy Sulla? 1884. 

6. Write a short biographical sketch of L. Cornelius Sulla. 18SS. 

7. Describe briefly the influence on the character of the Romans of their 

own civil wars. 1893. 

8. Give a brief account of the life and character of aiiy tivo of the following : 

Marius, Pouii»eius, Caius Gracchus. 1891. 

9. Sketch the military and jwlitieal career of Sulla, and mention his chief 

judicial and constitutional reforms. 1897. 

10. Sketch the military and political career of Caius Marius. 1899. 

11. Sketch briefly the life and work of Pericles and of Sulla. 1899. 

12. Write notes on Jugurtha. 1901. 

I. Early career:— 

1. Politics : By biilh connected with the aristocratic party ; 

by marriage and by inclination with the popular or 
Marian party. 

2. Flight from Rome to avoid Sulla's anger. Greek educa- 

tion at Rhodes. 

CAirs jri.ius caksar. 43 

3. Service in Cilicia against the pirates. 

4. Service against Mithradates. 

5. His indictment of DoUabella for extortion, of C. Anto- 

nius for maladministration in Greece. 

6. Caesar leader of the popular or democratic party, and 

opponent of senatorial government. His election as 
pontiff and military tribune, 74. 

7. Promotions : Quaestor and seat in the senate, 68 ; Aedile, 

63 ; Praetor, 62 ; Propraetor or governor in Spain, 61 ; 

II. The Two Great Parties :— 

1. The Optimates or Nobles: "Conservative of the old 

religious rites, the rights of the senate in its administra- 
tion of the courts of law, the exchequer, the army, and 
the provinces.'' 

2. The Populai' Party : ' ' The party of progress, advocat- 

ing the supremacy of the popular will over the senate, 
the reorganization of the senatorial courts and of the 
government and finances at home and in the provinces, 
and division of public lands among the people for 
actual settlement." 

III. Catiline's Conspiracy, 65-62.- 

1. Catiline's position: "A penniless aristocrat of ruined 

character and a partisan of Sulla." 

2. Catiline in office : Praetor 6S, propraetor in Africa, 67. 

Return to Rome, 66 ; rejection as candidate for the 

3. His conspiracy to murder the consuls, overthrow the 

constitution, burn and plunder Rome, 65 ; an organiza- 
tion of bankrupt nobles, Sullan veterans, starving 
peasants, outlaws and slaves. 

4. Cicero's orations against Catiline in the senate. Rscape 

of Catiline from Rome. Arrest of his fellow con- 

5. Caesar's advocacy of life-imprisonment, and the confisca- 

tion of the property of the conspirators. Execution of 


the conspirators through Cicero's advocacy of ths: 
6. Death of Catiline in the battle of Pistoria in Ktruria, 62. 

IV. Marcus Tullius Cicero, 10e-4i> ■■— 

1. Early Career : 

(a) Service in the Social War, 89. 

(d) His withdrawal to Athens to avoid the displeasure 
of Sulla. Travels in Asia. 

(c) Quaestor in Sicily, 76. Prosecution of Verres, 
Sicilian praetor for misrule and plunder. 

(d) Aedile, 69. Praetor, and member of the senate, 
68. Support of the Gabinian and Manilian Bills 
conferring the supreme command of the Roman 
forces on Pompe3'. 

2. Politics : Last great leader of the republican party in 

the senate. Advocate of a reformed government by 
the senate, and hence his unpopularity with the aris- 

3. Cicero and Catiline : Cicero consul, 63. Four orations Catiline. Flight of Catiline. Execution of 
his associates. Cicero's popularity ; "Father of his 

4. Banishment to Greece for putting Catiline's followers 

to death without a trial. Confiscation of Cicero's 
estates and villas, 58. 

5. Recall of Cicero, 57 ; triumphant return. Governor 

of Cilicia, 52. 

6. Cicero and the 1st Triumvirate : His opposition to 

the coalition. His attachment to the conserx'ative, 
senatorial or Pompeian party. Flight from Italy on 
its defeat. His return and adherence to Caesar's 

7. Cicero's tacit approval of the murder of Caesar, 44. 

Supporter of tlie claims of Octavii.s, the opponent of 

8. Cicero and the 2nd Triumvirate : Proscription li«ts; 

murder of Cicero to gratify Antony, 43. 


I, Charactsr and Ability : Kindly in nature, honorable, 
])ure-niiii(le(l, sensitive, patriotic. A good citizen an>l 
a good man. " Rome's greatest orator. . .As an orator, 
a statesman and a man of letters the most consununate 
specimen of the Roman character under the influence 
of Hellenic culture. . .Endowed with extraordinary 
facility of arrangement and ex])ression, but with little 
fertility of invention or breadth or strength of char- 
acter... An imitator and an adapter ratlier than an 
original thinker. Easily subjected to the influence of 
characters stronger than his own ... As a specimen of 
the highest culture of the ancient world, both moral 
and intellectual, he ever stand pre-eminent." 

V Marcus PorciuS CatO, 95-46 (grandson of Cato the 
Censor): — - 

r. Cato's Politics : Advocate of the old Republicanism 
and the old Roman virtues. Leader of the senatorial 
or patrician party. His battle against Rome's decline 
from the ancient free state. 

-'. Early Career — 

((? ) Opposition to the cruelties of Sulla. 

{d) Priest of Apollo : A fanatic in the pursuit of holi- 
ness and purity, yet with no faith in man or 

Cr) StafT-oflicer in the Gladiatorial War. 

{d ) Military tribune, 67. Campaign in Macedonia. 

(e) Quaestor : Zeal and integrity in the management 
of public accounts. 

(/) Provincial appointment in Asia. 

(g-) Opposition to Pompey's pretensions. 

[k) Support to Cicero in the execution of Catiline's 

3. Cato and the Triumvirs : 

(a) His struggle against their combined power. 
[l>) Cato's espousal of the cause of Pompey against 


4. Cato the Praetoi", 54 : 

[a] Endeavors to suppress bribery. 
(/>) Measures of police reform. 
{c) Reform in the military service. 
{d) Election of the priests by the people. 
(e) Abolition of the dictatorship. 

5. Cato and the Civil War : 

{a) Defeat of Pompey. Flight of Cato to Africa. 
(d) Cato's defence of Utica against Caesar. 
(r) Battle of Thapsus, 46. Defeat of the Pompeian 
party. Suicide of Cato. 

6. Character and ability : "A genuine Roman of the 

antique stamp. . . .A remarkable specimen of the 
effect of Hellenic training upon the hard and narrow but 
determined spirit of the old Latin race. . . The most 
influential pleader and political orator of his time. . . 
His unrelenting harshness and severity towards every- 
thing and everybody- ; liis obstinate contempt for 
everything new." Upright, honorable with generous 
and noble aims. His oratory " harsh, vehement, 
caustic." The patron-saint of the Stoic School of 

VI. Cneius Pompey, 106-48 : 

1. Politics: Leader of the aristocratic or senatorial party. 

2. Pompey and the Civil "War between Marius and 

Sulla : 

{a) Pompey, a general in Sulla's army. 

(h) Distinction in the Social War. 

(c) Destruction of the Marian part}' in Sicily and 

(d) Pompey Proconsul in Spain : Overthrow of Ser- 
torius, the Marian leader, in Spain, 76-71, 

3. Gladiators' War : Defeat of the rebels by Pompey, 71. 

4. Pompey Consiil, 70 : His colleague, Crassus the Rich. 

5. Pompey 's Reforms : 


la) Repeal of Sulla's laws. 

{d) Restoration of the power of the censors and the 

(<;) Appointment of Supreme Court judges from sena- 
tors, knights and tribunes. 

6. Pompey and the Cilician pirates, 67 : 

(a) Pompey's absolute authority by land and sea for 3 
years, through the measure of the tribune Gabinius 
(Gabinian L,a\v, 67). Caesar's support of the bill. 

{d) Pompey's destruction of the pirates in 40 days. 
Establishment of Rome's authority in Cilicia. 

7. Pompey in the East, 66-61 : 

{a) Pompe3''s unlimited powers in the East for 3 years 
through the measure of the tribune Manilius 
(Manilian Law, 66). Opposition of the senate. 
Support of the bill b}^ Caesar, Crassus, Cicero. 
Pompey the first man in the Roman world. 

{d) Pompey's alliance with the king of Parthia. Break- 
\\p of the league between Mithradates and Tigr- 
anes. Blockade of Pontus by a Roman fleet. 

(r) Surprise and defeat of Mithradates. 

[d) Annexation of Syria, Palestine, Pontus, Cilicia, 
Crete, as Roman provinces. 

[e) Subjugation of the East ; establishment of pett)-- 
vassal kings over the conquered territory. 

(/) Pompey's return to Rome ; refusal of the senate to 

ratify his doings in the East. 
(^) His defection to the popular party. Overthrow of 

the senatorial party. 
(A) Caesar and Pompey consuls, 59 ; formation of the 


8. The First Triumvirate, 60 ; "unlimited control of the 

state by tliree men " : — 
(a) The division : 

(i) Caesar's control of Gaul (Cisalpine and Transalpine) 
and lUyricum, for 5 ye;9J"s. 


(2) Pompey s supreme command of Italj', Sicilj', 
Africa, Spain, and the Mediterranean fleet. 

13) Crassus, governor of Syria. 
(/>) The Triumvirs : 

i I ) Caesar consul 59 : His Agrarian Bill to divide 
public lands of Campania among 20,000 of Pon.- 
pey's veterans. Ratification of Pompey's acts in 
the East. Caesar in Gaul, 58-49. 

(2) Pompey at Rome, 59-49 : 

(a) His return to the aristocratic party. 

(b) Banishment of Cicero, 58. Cicero's recall, 57. 
{c) Pompey's plots to overthrovv^ Caesar. 

{d) Death of Julia his wife, the daughter of Caesar. 
(e) Quarrel with Caesar, 49. 

(3) Defeat atad. death of Crassus in a battle with the 
Parthians at Carrhae, 53. 

VII. Caesar's Campaig^ns in Gaul, 58-49 :— 

58. Invasion of S. Gaul by the Helvetii and their allies 
(368,000 in all ) ; Caesar's victories, near Bibracte and 
at Autun. Caesar's defeat of the Germans under 
Ariovistus at Muhlhauseit ; their expulsion from 
Gaul ; the Rhine made the boundary of Roman sway 
in Gaul, 

57. War with the Belgae ; Cae-sar's overthrow of their con- 
federacy. His defeat of the Nervii, a Belgian tribe, at 
the river Sabis. 

56. Conference at Luca (in Etruria) between Caesar, 
Pompey, Crassus : Renewal of the triumvirate coalition 
for 5 3'ears ; sanction of Pompej- and Crassus as consuls 
for the year 55 ; Caesar to be consul for 48. Com- 
pletion of the conquest of Gaul. 

55 Invasion of Gaul b)' the Germans : Caesar's victory 
near the confluence of Rhine and Meuse. Caesar's 
firi^t invasion of Germany. " Military reconnaissance " 
of Britain. 

54. vSecond invasion of Britain: Caesar's advance to the 


Thames; defeat of the Britons under Cassivelaunus ; 
exaction of tribute and hostages. 

53. Suppression of an insurrection of X. E. Gallic tribes. 
Caesar's pacification of the Rhine districts. 

52. General uprising of Central and Southern Gaul under 
Vercingetorix, prince of the Arverni ; revolt of the 
Aedui ; Caesar's victory over the allied Gauls (258,000) 
at Alesia ; surrender of Vercingetorix. 

5 i . Subjugation of the smaller Gallic states ; final pacifica- 
tion of Gaul ; enrolment of the Gallic tribes as the 
allies of Rome ; exaction of tribute and hostages ; con- 
struction of military highways. Lasting impression of 
Roman language, laws, and other civilized influences, 
upon the conquered people. 

49. Return of Caesar to Cisalpine Gav;l. The senate's 
notice to Caesar " to disband his army on pain of out- 
lawry." Caesar's refusal to give up his command. 

VIII. Caesar and Pompey (The Second Civil War) :- 

1. Caesar and. Pompey consuls, 59. Caesar's reforms : 

[a) Publication of the proceedings of the senate. The 

senate's deliberations thus amenable to public 

{b) Alliance with Ptolemy, King of Egypt, and 

Ariovistus, the German chief. 
{c) Remedy of provincial abuses and provision for 

better government of the provinces. 
(d) Suppression of bribery and corruption amongst 

public officers. 

2. Pompey sole consul, 52. Pompey 's bill in the senate 

for the exclusion of Caesar on account of his absence. 
Extension of Pompey's governorship of Spain 5 years. 
Political dissensions and threatened disruption of the 

3. Caesar's return from Gaul. Crossing the Rubicon, a 

declaration of war against Pompey. Siege and capture 
of Corfinium. Flight of Pompey to Brundusium 
thence to Epirus. Surrender of the Pompeian aimy at 


Ilerda (Spain) 49. Submission of Massilia (Marseil- 
les) to Caesar. 

4. Caesar's position : Dictator 49, Consul 48. Master of 

Italy, Gaul, Spain. 

5. Caesar's reforms : 

[a) Extension of the franchise to Cisalpine Gaul. 
[d) Financial measures for the relief of debt. 
{c) Restoration of the Marian exiles. 

6. Fall of Pompey : 

[a ) Caesar's futile siege of Dyrrachium , 48 ; Pompey 's 

escape through Caesar's lines. 
{b) Battle of PharsalJa, 48 : Defeat of Pompey by 

Caesar and Antony. 
{c) Flight of Pompey to Egypt. His murder, 48. 

7. Character of Pom.pey : Ambitious, able ; treacherous 

and mean-spirited ; weak and irresolute in a crisis. 
" His genius for war ; a politician without a policy." 

IX. Caesar in Egypt, 48 : - 

1. Cleopatra's quarrel with her brother Ptolemy, King of 


2. Caesar's espousal of Cleopatra's cause. 

3. Blockade of Caesar in Alexandria. Destruction of the 

Egyptian fleet, and the great Alexandrian Library of 
400,000 volumes. Defeat of the Egyptian army 
Death of Ptolemy by drowning. 

4. Enthronement of Cleopatra as Queen of Egypt. 

X. Caesar in Asia, 47 :— 

1. Revolt of Pharnaces, son of Mithradates of Pontus. 

2. Battle of Zela, 47 : Caesar's victory. 

3. Caesar's return to Rome : Dictator, also consul with 

Lepidus as colleague, 46. 

XI. Caesar in Africa :— 

I. Battle of Thapsus, 46 : Defeat of the Pompeian forces 


under Metellus Scipio. Overthrow of the 3()un,t;er 
Cato at Utica. 
'?.. Northern Africa under tlie sway of Rome. 

^11. Caesar's Honors :— Dictator for la years, Consul for 5. 
Censor for 3, Tribune for life. Celebration of 4 triumphs, 
Gaul, Egypt, Pontus, Nuniidia. Caesar " sole ruler of the 
Ronian world." 

XIII. Caesar s Reforms :— 

I . Reform of the calendar : Correction of the year from 
445 to 365 days with one day more in February of 
every 4th year. (Unchanged till 16 Cent.) 

Increase of the senate to 900 ; increase of the number of 

Measures to check extravagance and luxury, indi:ced by 
conquest and plunder. 

4. Rncouragement of commerce and agriculture ; discour- 

agement of slave labor. 

5. Distribution of public land among the soldiers. 

6. Donations of public corn to the poorer citizens ; re- 

building of Carthage and Corinth by corporation labor ; 
improvement of the Appian Way. 

7. Establishment of a stricter control over Ihe provincial 

governors ; improvement in tli2 condition of the pro- 

8. Rigid enforcement of the laws. 

9. p;,stablishment throughout Italy of a miiform system of 

tnunicipal government. 

XIV. Caesars Proposed Reforms: — 

1 . Codification of the Roman laws. 

2. Establishment of public libraries. 

3. Embellishment of Rome with temples, theatres, etc. 

4. Construction of roads, canals, harbors. Enlargement of 

the harbor of Ostia. Canal across the Corinthian 
isthmus. Drainage of the Pomptine marshes. 


5. Subjugation of Parthiar, Scytliia, Germany. 

6. EqualiU' for all people in Rome's domains b_v enrolment 

of provincials as Roman citizens. 

7. Institution of a senate open to all Roman citizens, and 

constituting an advisory council to the king. 

.'SV Caesar in Spain :— 

T. Battle of Munda, 45 : Defeat of Cueius and Sextus 
Pompej' (sons of Pompeyj. 

2. Further honors to Caesar: "Father of his Country" ; 
" Imperator " or supreme ruler for life; Dictator, 
Censor, Praefectus morum for life ; Consul for 10 years ; 
change of the month Ouintilis to Julius ; Caesar's 
effigy on coins. The senate, assembly, and magistrates 
subject to Caesar's authority. Master of the legions 
and of the provinces. Meeting of the senate on the 
Ides of March, 44, to confer on Caesar the title of 
" King" outside of Italy. 

XVI. Conspiracy against the Restoration of a 
Monarchy : — 

1. Conspiracy of 60 repul)licans led l)y Junius Brutus and 


2. Murder of Caesar, Mar. 15, 44. 

3. Cains Julius Caesar Octavius, grandson of Caesar's 

sister, by will Caesar's heir and successor. 

XVII. Caesar's Character and Ability :— " The greatest 

man of the Roman or perhaps of all the ancient world. 
The highest excellence as a citizen, a jurist, a politician, 
an orator, a general, a companion, a man of letters, and a 
lar-seeing, organizing statesman." Genius, foresight, ver- 
satility, practicality, energ3% courage, self-possession, self- 
confidence ; eloquence, public spirit, consistency of politi- 
cal character; dignity, honor, sweetness, nobleness; "the 
foremost man of all this world ; the sole creative genius 
produced by Rome, and the last produced by the ancient 
world." The political, niilitar}', intellectual, and moral 
regenerator of a deeply decayed nation. A master of the 






arts of war and of peace. A monarch who never placed 
the king or the tyrant. " His personal rule, the embodi- 
ment of imperial unity and good order. . . .The founder of 
that system of government under wliich the civilized 
■world lived contentedly for three centuries." 

Examination Questions on C. Julius Caesar. 

1. Give an account of the internal history of Rome during the life of 

Pompey. 1875. 

2. What offices were conferre<i on Julius Caesar for life? Explain the 

powers i>ertainiui; to each of them. 1877. 

3. Tell what you know of Catiline, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. 1877. 

i. Give the history of the 2nd Civil War in Rome, with its causes and 
results. 1878. 

5. Describe the circumstances which led to the 1st Triumvirate in Rome 

and trace the subsequent history of its members. 1878. 

6. State the causes of the downfall of Roman freedom and e.xplain how 

they operated. 1879. 

7. Write brief notes on Antony, Catiline, Sulla. 1880. 

8. .Sketch clo:irly the characters of Julius Caesar, Augustus Caesar, Pompey, 

Sulla. 18S0.' 

9. Give a jv'.su//ic' of Caesar's campaigns in Gaul. 1881. 

10. State, in chronological order, the principal facts in the life of Julius 
Caesar. 1882. 

11. Describe briefly the political circumstances which led to the banish- 
ment and recall of Cicero. 18S2. 

12. Write notes on Cato the Censor, optimates, Spartacus. 1882. 

13. Describe the civil conflicts in Rome from the death of Marius to that of 
Julius Caesar. 1885. 

11. Trace the origin of the civil war between Caesar and Pomi)ey, and 
mention the events in the war that seem to throw light on the characters 
of these generals. 1886. 

15. Sketch briefly the political and military career of Julius Caesar, account- 
ing as far as you can for its success. Give your estimate of Caesar's 
character and abilities ; also of the influence of his career upon the 
history of the world. 18J1. 

16. Sketch briefly and compare the careers and characters of Demosthenes 
and Cicero, Pompey and Julius Caesar. 1893. 

17. Give a brief account of the life and character o( ani/ two of the follow- 
ing : Marius, Pompeius, Gains Gracchus. 1891. 

IS Name, locate, and write brief notes on 3 places famous in the war 
between Caesar and Pompey. 1894. 


19. Sketch briefly the career and character of Julius Caesar. On what 
achievements does his reputation as a statesman and reformer rest? 

20. Give an account of Caesar's public career from the conclusion of his 
campaigns in Gaul till his death. Describe his character, and mention 
any measures of reform with which his name is connected. 1897. 

21. Describe the cause of tlie war between Pompey and Caesar, and sketch 
the previous careers of the two men. (Give dates.) 1898. 

22. Draw a map of the Roman world at the beginning of the Empire. 1808. 

23. Vniat led to the quarrel between Pompey and Caesar? Trace briefly 
tlie course of events from the outbreak of the quarrel to the death of 
Pompey. 1900. 

24. Give an account of the political work of Julius Ca?sar. WOl. 

25. Write notes on the greatness of Julius Caesar. 1901. 

26. Contrast the characters and the chief aspects of the careers of Pericles 
and Julius Caesar. 1902. 

S7. Outline the causes and the results of the quarrel hetAveen Pomjjey and 
Caesar. 1902. 

J.— AUGUSTUS, 62 B.C.— A.D. 14. 

I. Mark Antony : — 

1. Antony and Caesar : 

(«) Friendship for Caesar. One of Caesar's generals. 

{b) Oration against the conspirators over the mur- 
dered Caesar. 

(c) Flight of Brutus and Cassius to ]\Iacedonia, Cassius 
to Syria, Decinius Brutus to Cis. Gaul. 

2. Antony sole consul and leader in Rome ; opponent 

of the claims of Caesar Octavianus. 

3. Character : A distinguished general, a great orator. 

Vicious, profligate, reckless, headstrong but generous. 

II. Early Career of Octavianus:— 

1. "Master of the horse " at 18 under his great-uncle, 

Julius Caesar. 

2. Education at Apollonia in lUyricum at the time of 

Caesar's assassination, 44. Return to Rome to claim 
his inheritance. Agrippa his friend and adviser. 

3. Octavianus as "defender of the republic against 

Antony." Defeat of Antony at flutlna, 43. 

4. Election of Octavianus as consul in spite of the senate's 



5. Alliance of Ortavianiis and Antony. Defeat of Deci- 

nius Brutus in Cis. Gaul. 

6. Decree of death against the murderers of Caesar. 

Flight and murder of D. Brutus. 

III. Second Triumvirate, 43:- 

1. Members : Octavianus, Antony, T^epidus (Antony's 


2. Purpose : The reconstitution of the Roman common- 


3. Division of the government of the Roman Empire for 5 

years : 

{a) Octavianus : Africa, Sicily, Sardinia. 

{b) Antony: Parts of Gaul. 

{c) Ivcpidus : Spain, and Gaul in part. 

4. Proscription lists : Murder of Cicero, 2,000 equites 

(knigfhts), 300 senators, etc. 

5. Confiscation of territory and property for their soldiers. 

Reign of terror in Rome. 

6. Flight of republicans either to Brutus and Cassius, 

masters of tlie East, or to Sextus Pompey, the master 
of the western sea and of Sicily. 

7. Battle of Philippi, 42 : Defeat of Brutus and Cassius by 

Octavianus and Antony. Suicide of the two republi- 
can leaders. 
S. Second division of the Roman world, 42 : Octavianus, 
the West ; Antony, the East ; Lepidus, Africa. 

9. Quarrel between Octavianus and Antony : Settlement 

by Treaty of Brundusium, Marriage of Antony and 
Octavia, sister of Octavianus, 40. 

10. Sextus Pompey : In possession of the Islands of the 
Mediterranean. Defeat of Octavianus' fleet, 39. In- 
vasion of Sicily. Battle of Maulochos, 36, near 
Mylae : Final defeat of Pompey by Agrippa. Death of 
Pompey in Asia, 35. 

11. Antony in the East : 


(a) Antony's invasion of Parthia, a disastrous cam- 
paign, Antony's return to Egypt. 

{b) His gifts to Cleopatra : Syria, Cilicia, Cyprus, 

Armenia, Cyrenaica, Africa, 
(f) His divorce of Octavia. 

12. Banishment of Lepidus by Octavianus for collusion 
with Sextus Pompey. 

13. Declaration of war by Octavianus against Antony and 

{a) Decree of the senate depriving Antony of his com- 
mand in the East. 

(b) Antony's invasion of Greece. 

{c) Battle of Actium, 31 : Total defeat of the fleets of 
Antony and Cleopatra by Octavianus and Agrippa. 

{d) Pursuit of Antony and Cleopatra to Egypt. Their 
death by suicide. Egypt made a Roman province. 

IV. Reign of Augustus, 31 B.C -14 A.D. :— 

X. Character of Augustus : A commander yet "always 
more statesman than soldier,'' a skilful diplomat. 
" He had gained the affections of the provincials and 
of the Italian people ; he had pleased the Roman 
plebs, and he had done his best to conciliate the 
nobility. No man was ever better fitted to the delicate 
task of reconciling personal rule with the forms of 
republicanism. . .By birth and temperament, in habits 
of mind and life, he had far more in common with the 
average Italian than his great-uncle . . . He shared their 
thrifty habits, their simplicity of life, their respect for 
respectability, and even the vein of homely supersti- 
tion. . .contrasted curiously with great political acute- 
ness and resolute tenacity of purpose. . .Inbred caution, 
self-control, and astuteness." 

2. Honors and powers : Imperator or consul imperium 
for 10 years, censor and tribune for life ; commander- 
in-chief of all the forces of the state " with the exclu- 
sive right of levying troops, of making war and peace, 
and of concluding treaties." The chief magistrate at 


Rome ; the acknowledged head of the senate as 
princeps senatus ; proconsul of all the provinces ; as 
Augustus " the guardian of the Roman empire, and 
the governor of the whole world." Pontifex Maxi- 
nnis or chief priest of the Roman people. Control of 
the treasury. 

3. Policy : To rule as absolute king and dictator under 

the guise of republican forms. To restore the func- 
tions of senate, assembly, and magistrates. 

4. His government of the provinces : 

{a) Imperial provinces : All provinces on the frontiers, 
in which armies were regularly stationed, under 
the emperor's direct authority. His absolute 
power to appoint governors or deputies [legati), to 
assign their duties, to hear their appeals, to control 
provincial revenues for his own treasury. The 
management of the finances in the province 
entrusted to a procurator. " Concentration of 3^ 
of the empire under the sole and direct control of 
Caesar and his personal servants... A great step 
towards the unification of the empire and the 
development of a sound administrative system, 
free from the graver defects of the republican 
method." Imperial provinces: Spain (pt.), Gaul 
(pt. ), Britain, Raetia, Dalmatia, Noricum, Pan- 
nonia, Moesia, Pontus, Cilicia, Galatia, Pamphylia, 
Syria, Egypt. 

(i^) Senatorial or public provitices : Central and peace- 
ful sections of the empire under the government 
of the senate. Authority to collect revenues for 
the state treasury, to appoint governors. Senator- 
ial control subject to the emperor as princeps 
senatus. Senatorial provinces: Spain (pt.), Gaul 
(pt ), Italy, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Africa, 
Numidia, Macedon, Achaia, Cyprus, Asia, 

5. His measures of reform : 

{a) Municipal system: Division of i' jly into districts 
with local government for each. 


[b) Statistical surve}- or census of the empire ; esti- 
mate of its resources on which to base an imperial 
system of finance. 

{c) Decrease of taxation "by the establishment of 
imperial taxes on land and personal property." 

{(f) " Publication A-ear by year of the accounts of the 
empire ; the first approach to a comprehensive 
imperial budget."' 

(e) Security of the empire's frontiers, " by permanent 
camps, frontier stations, and connecting military 
highways. ' ' 

{/) Safety of life and propert}- at Rome (pop. nearly 
a million) : Maintenance of order by police headed 
\>y 2. prefect ; "Security against floods, fire, riot- 
ing and violence." Maintenance and regulation 
Rome's corn and water-supply by a special prefect. 
Suppression of brigandage and piracy in Italj-. 

(^g) Restoration of order in the Roman political world : 
"The bond of union created by the spread of 
Roman citizenship, Roman law, and Roman muni- 
cipal institutions, was the powerful tie of allegi- 
ance to the central authority of Caesar." 

(A) Model provincial system of government : Relief to 
pro\dncials. Increase of revenue from the pro- 
vinces through taxes and trade. Extension of the 
Italian road system to the provinces. 

(z) The Roman legions : Reduction to ^ or 25 
legions. "Organization of a permanent regular 
force for the defence of the empire under the 
supreme command of Caesar, from whom each 
soldier received his pa}-, his discharge, his reward." 
Body-guard of 10 Praetorian cohorts (8000). 
Assignment of lands to his soldiers. The allies a 
regular supplement to the legions. 

(7') Re-establishment of the old Roman religion : 
Restoration of temples, ancient festivals, and the 
worship of the gods. Prohibition of foreign rites. 

(/^) Social reforms : Measures to enforce morality and 
restrict extravagance. Establishment of new social 


orders or castes : the sciiafc, the knights, the 
plebs or populace of Rome. " Maintenance of the 
old Roman dress and manners ajjainst foreis^n 
fashions, of the distinctive pre-eminence of the 
free-born Roman citizens, or imperial race, over 
provincials, freedmen and slaves." 

(/) Encouragement of literature, learning, and art. 
Embellishment of Rome. Establishment of the 
first public library. 

Augustan Wars : 

{a) Conquest and annexation of Dalmatia, Pannonia, 

Raetia, Noricum, Moesia. 
((5) Suppression of Cantabrian revolts in Spain. 
(^) Germanic wars : 

(i) Causes: Invasion of Gaul by the Germans. 
Extension of Roman dominions by Drusus 
from the Rhine to the Elbe. 
(3) Death of the Roman commander. Drusus 
(step-son of Augustus) ; Tiberius (brother of 
Drusus) his successor. 

(3) Annexation of Germany (between the Rhine 
and the Weser) as a Roman province, 9 A.D. 

(4) Tyranny of Varus the Roman Governor of 

(5) Destruction of the Roman army in Teutoburg 
Forest. 9 A.D. bj' Hermann (Arminius), 
"the deliverer of Germany." Suicide of 

{d^ Suppression of sevolts in Dalmatia and Pannonia 
b}' Tiberius, 9 A.D. 

The Birth, of Christ. Peace throughout the Roman 

Augustus' domestic misfortunes : Death of his 
grandsons and heirs, Caius and Julius Caesar at the 
hands of Ijvia. Vicious conduct of his.daughter Julia. 
Evil influence of his wife I^ivia. Dea,th ot his friend 
and adviser, Agrippa. 


9. Extent of the Roman Empire at the death of 

Augustus . 

From the Atlantic Ocean to the Armenian Mts. , the 
Tigris, and Arabian Desert ; from the African 
deserts to the English Channel, Rhine, Danube, 
Black Sea, and Caucasus Mts. 

10. Augustan Ag-e of Latin Literature : 
(a) Pre- Augustan Period, 240-81 : 

(i) Historian: Ennius, "the father of Roman 
L,iterature. " The Annals of Rome. 

(2) Dramatists : Plautus, Terence. 

(3) Poets: Lucretius, Catullus. 
{b) 2ND Period, Si, — a.d. 14 : 

(i) Poets : Vergil, 70-19, "the greatest epic poet 
of Rome " : — Aeneid, Georgics. Horace, 65-8, 
"the prince of Latin lyric poets": Odes, 
Satires, Epistles. Ovid, 43— B.C., 18 A.D., 
' ' the lawyer-poet ' ' : — Fasti, Metamorphoses, 
Tristia, Ex Ponto. 

(2) Historians: Caesar: — Commentaries, Gallic 
Wars, Civil Wars. Sallust, 86-34 : — Con- 
spiracy of Catiline, fugurthine War. Livy, 
59 B.C. — 17 A.D : — Histotyof Rome. " Rome's 
greatest historian." "The most perfect 
specimen of Latin prose writing." 

(3) Orators: Cicero, 106-43, "chief of Roman 
orators and philosophers." Orations, Rhe- 
toric. Caesar, 100-44. 

Examination Que.stions on Augustus. 

1. State as definitely as you can the extent of the Roman Empire at the 

birth of Christ. "lS79. 

2. Write a paper on the customs, habits, and general social condition of the 

Romans in the reign of Augustus. 1880. 

3. Show how Roman influence lias affected the history of modern times. 


4. Sketch the career of Julius Caesar and that of Augustus. 1883. 


IN t3 A.D. 


1. g 

2. A 

3. S 

4. S 


5. Trace llii' course of Roman coiuiiicst around tlie Mt'iliturraucan, Kiviiig 
dates. 1KS:J. 

(j. Briefly describe the constitution of Jlome under Augustus. IHHM. 

7. Describe the internal admiuistration of Augustus. 1.S.S4. 

■S. Name the chief divisions of the Roman world in the time of Augustus. 

n. Briefly describe the Roman Constitution under Augustus, Why was the 
government of the early emperors so stable compared with the preced- 
ing period? 1886. 

10. Describe the boundaries of the Roman Empire at the death of Augu.stus, 
and mention briefly and in chronological order when and how the 
territories lying outside of Italy were acquired. 1886. 

11. Name and give the general position of the chief Roman possessions in 
the lime of Augustus. 1S87. 

12. Write a short biographical account of .\ugustus after his assumi)tion of 
supreme authority. 1887. 

13. Write a short biographical sketch of Octavianus up to the time of his 
return to Rome from the East. 1888. 

14. State generally the extent of the Roman Empire in the time of Augustus, 
using modern geographical names. 189(1. 

15. Remark, with reference to particular measures, on the administration of 
domestic affairs by Augustus. 1891). 

l(i. Describe briefly the position (using modern names) of the following: 
Gallia Cisalpina, (4allia Transalpina, Liguria, Etruria, Latium. Sam- 
nium, Apulia, Asia (propria), Cilicia, Bithynia and Pontus, Thracia, 
Dacia, Africa (propria), Numidia, Mauritania. 1891. 

17. Enumerate and locate the regions comprised within the Roman Empire 
at the birth of Christ, using in your answer, as far as possible, both the 
ancient names and their modern equivalents. 1892. 

18. (a) Cive an account of the character of the government of Augustus 
(B.('. .31, -A. D. 14) specifying what he did :— (1) To secure permanency 
anil strength in his position as chief of the Empire. (2) To secure an 
unopposed and authoritative administration of affairs both in Rome 
and throughout the Empire. (6) Give some account of the condition of 
the people of Rome inider Augustus as regards :— (1) Their political con- 
dition ; (2) their moral and social life; (3) their religion, (c) Describe 
very briefly the literary activity of Ron:e during the time of Augustus, 
mentioning some of the writers" and writings that contributed towards 
making it famous as the " Augustan Age " of Latin Literature. 1892. 

19. Specify in general terms the territories that were under Roman domina- 
tion (i) at the close of the 1st Punic War, 241, (2) at the fall of Numan- 
tia, l:W, (3) at the end of the Mithradatic War, 61, (4) at the death of 
Augustus. 1893. 

20. Name and give the situation of the various countries and provinces 
which constituted the Roman Emigre at the death of Augustus. As far 
as possible give both ancient and modern names. 1895. 

21. Sketch the reign and character of .Augustus, and give some account of 
the famous men whose names lend lustre to the time. 1896. 



Give an account of the formation of the Second Triumvirate, anil of the 

subsequent fortunes of Its members. 1899. 

(live location of, and write historical notes on :— Capua, Ostia, I'har- 

salus, Philippi, Saguntum, Zama. 1899. 

Relate the events immediately preceding and leading up to the liattle of 

Actium. What were tlie results of tills battle? 1899. 

Sketch the life and work of Alcibiades and of Augustus. 1900. 

Give the location and write brief historical works on :— Cynoscephalae, 

Chaeroneia, Megalopolis, Naupactus, Cannae, Massilia, Saguntum, 

Trasimenus. 1900. 

Sketch the life and character of Augustus. 1900. 

Write geographical notes on : Attica, Argo.s, Leuctra, Hymettus, Peneus, 

Dyrrhachium, Massilia, Numidia, Capvia. 1901. 

Write notes, historical and geographical, on the frontiers of (he Roman 

Empire under Augustus. 1901. 

Write notes on the power of the Roman Senate under Augustus. 1902. 




I. Julian Emperors : - 

Date. Emperor. 

49 B.C. Julius Caesar 
31 B.C. Augustus Caesar 
U A.D, Tiberius 



Oaligrula (Caius) 


Chief Events, Etc. 

Abolition of the last shadow of republican 
freedom ; servile flattery of the senate ; 
military despotism of the praetorian 
cohorts, l-oss of the last vestige of the 
Roman Assembly's power. The consul the 
nominee of Caesar. Successful invasion of 
Germany by Germanicus. son of Drusus. 
Crucifixion of Christ, 33. Character of 
Tiberius, "a capable and vigorous ruler; a 
brave and skilful commander; cold, reserv- 
ed, and taciturn." 

Son of Germanicus. Character : Brutal, pro- 
fligate, licentious, "remarkable for nothing 
but his vices"; a blood-thirsty tyrant ; a 
squanderer of the public treasures. Murder 
of Caligula, wife and daughters, by the 

Brother of Germanicus. Construction of 
aqueducts, roads, bridges, harbors. Second 
invasion of Britain, 43, by Agricola, 
Vespasiari, Titus ; defeat of the Britons; 
southern Britain a Eoman Province, 
51. Rapid Komauization of Gaul and Spain. 
Annexation of Mauritania, Thrace, Judea. 
Powerlessuess of the senate. Death of Clau- 
dius by poison at the hands of his wife. 
Character : Suspicious, cowardly, jealous, 
cruel, licentious. 



Date. Emperor. 

54 Nero 



Chief Events, Etc. 

Son of Agrippina, Claudius' second wife. 
Murder of his mother. The burning of Rome, 
attributed to Nero, by him charged to the 
Christians ; inhuman slaug-hter of 
Christians, inchiding the apostles, Peter 
and Paul. Oppression, confiscations, pro- 
scriptions. Murder of Seneca, the philoso- 
pher, of lyucian, the poet, of Octavia and 
Poppaea, Nero's wives. Revolt of Spain, 
Gaul, Germany, Judaea. Conspiracy of Galba 
and the soldiers against Nero. Suicide of 
Nero. Character : " His life divided between 
frivolity and heartless butchery." "His 
thirst for blood was insatiable." 
Henceforth the emperors elected by the 
choice of the .soldiers. Murder of Galba 
after a reign of 8 months. 

Defeat of Otho by the Rhine legions under 
Vitellius. Suicide of Otho. 
"A vulgar glutton and .sensualist." Siegre 
of Jerusalem by Vespasian. Revolt of 
the legions in favor of Vespasian. Defeat 
and nnirder of Vitellius." 

II. The Flavian Emperors: 






A plain, shrewd, thrifty, practical, able 
man ; " the true renovator of the state." Dis- 
cipline, economy, justice. "Attempt to legal- 
ize Caesarism by making the principate a 
permanent office, with a regular law of suc- 
cession and with inherent prerogatives." 
Embellishment of Rome : Capitoline Temple, 
Colosseum, Temple of Peace. Vespasian's 
aversion to philosophers, Jews, Christians. 
Capture of Jerusalem by his son, 
Titus, 70. Extension of Roman conquests 
in Britain by Agricola. Defence of the fron- 
tiers. A beneficial reign. 
A kind, benevolent ruler. Eruption of 
Vesuvius : destruction of Pompeii 
and Herculaneum, and death of Pliny 
the Elder. Conflagration in Rome. Plague 
throughout Italy. 

Brother of Titus. Cruel, tyrannical; "one 
of the darkest and most detestable of tyrants." 
Plis delight in gladitorial exhibitions. Pro- 
scriptions and confiscations. Murder of 

Elected by the people and soldiers. "A ven- 
erable senator of mild disposition." 






Antoninus Pius 

Marcus Aurelius 




Chief Events, Etc. 

A native of Spain. A gi'eat soldier. En- 
courag-ement of trade, commerce, in- 
tellectual culture. Embellishment of 
Rome, Italy, and the provinces with trium- 
phal arches, porticoes, temples ; Public 
I,ibrar\' and New Forum at Rome. Restor- 
ation of the power of the senate. Subjug"a- 
tion of Dacia, Parthia, Armenia, 
Mesopotamia. Trajan a friend of Tacitus 
and Plmj- the Younger. 

Trajan's lieutenant. Noble in intellect but 
vain. Patron of arts, sciences, litera- 
ture. Plutarch his chief friend. Embel- 
lishment of Athens and Rome. Extension 
of the to provincials. Creation of 
the office of "procurator" or head of the 
Imperial ci\al ser^-ice. Establishment of an 
Imperial Council. "Legalization of Caesar- 
ism as a permanent institution, the practical 
abolition of the dual control shared by Caesar 
with the regular magistrate, and the organi- 
zation under Caesar of elaborate administra- 
tive machinery' controlled exclusively by him 
and deriving its authority from him alone." 
Visits of Hadrian to Gaul, Germany, Britain, 
Greece, Asia, Egypt. A reign of peace ex- 
cept for an insurrection of the Jews. 
Adopted son of Hadrian. A Gaul noted for 
justice, wisdom, mildness; "a second 
Numa." "The happiest period of the 
Roman Empire": Advancement of the 
arts of peace, justice. Establishment of 
educational and charitable institutions. Pro- 
tection to the Christians. 

Adopted son of Antoninus. Amiable, affec- 
tionate, benevolent; "the Philosopher." 
"His reign closes the series of really good 
emperors." Insurrections of the Parthians, 
Germans, Sarmatians. Barbarian invasion 
of Pannonia, Raetia, Noricum. 
Son of Aurelius. "One of the most con- 
temptible and insane tj'rants in hi.story " ; 
a brutal and debauched beast. Beginnings 
of the decline of the Empire internal- 
ly and externally. Restoration of the 
militan.- despotism of the praetorian guards ; 
the emperors henceforth tyrants or weak- 
lings. Plague and famine in Italy. Murder 
of Commodus. 

Attempts at reform. 3 months' reign. Mur- 
der of the emneror by the guards. A state 
of anarchy. Power in the hands of the 




193 ' 


Chiet Events. 


Didius Julianus A wealthy glutton, elected by the guards. 



Alex. Severus 

The 2 Gordiani 

Maximus and 

Gordian III. 










Elected emperor by the legions in lUyricuni. 
Murder of Didius -by decree of the senate. 
Inexorable severitj' of the new emperor; a 
complete militar\' despotism. Reforms of 
law, justice, morality. Decline of the senate's 
power. Insurrection in Britain ; Death of 
Severus there. 

A lu.stful, brutal tyrant. Roman citizenship 
given to all the provinces. His plunder of 
the Empire. His murder bj' the praetorians. 

Praefect of the praetorians. Harsh and un- 
popular. His murder by the .soldiers. 

Brutal, extravagant, 

His murder by the 

.Simple-hearted, moral ; well-dispo.sed to- 
wards the Christians. Growth of Persia as 
Rome's enemy in the East. His murder by 
the guards. 

A Thracian. Persecutor of the Christians 
and others. Devastation of Germany. 

Associate emperors ; father and son. The 
younger slain in battle. .Suicide of the 

Associate emperors, 

JIurdered by the prae- 

Murdered by Philip, an Arab. 

A government of wisdom and moderation. 
Protection to the Christians. Defeat and 
death of Philip by the legions under Decius. 
Invasion of Moesia, Thrace, Macedonia, by 
the Goths. 

Internal decay and dissolution of the state. 
Fearful persecution of the Christians. In- 
vasion of Thrace by the Goths. Death of 
Decius in battle against the Goths. 
Inactivity against tne inroads of the Goths 
Dacia lost to Rome Election of Aemilianus' 
Defeat and death of Gallus. Murder by the 
soldiers after a 4 months' reign. 
"A most distinguished man." Efforts to 
restore tranquillity and justice. Rise of the 
Franks, Goths, Persians. Defeat of the Per- 
sians by Valerian. Taken prisoner by the 



Date. Emperor. 

260 Gallienus 

26S Claudius II 

270 Aurellan 

275 Tacitus 

276 Probus 


Car us 

Carinus and. 

Chief Events. 

Son of Valerian. Insurrections in nearly all 
the provinces. Recognition of the indepen- 
dence of Palmyra; Zenobia, Queen and foun- 
der of the empire of Palmyra. Sack of 
Athens, Corinth, Argo.s, Sparta by the Goths. 
Assassination of Gallienus. 
A brave warrior ; a lover of strict justice. 
Zenobia's subjugation of Syria and Egy-pt. 
Troubles with the Goths ; the enemy driven 
back across the Danube. EflForts of Claudius 
to restore the empire. 

A Pannonian. Real restorer of the Roman 
Empire. Recovery' of Syria and Egypt ; 
capture of Zenobia and destruction of Pal- 
myra. Internal reforms ; wise measures. 
Assassination of the emperor. 
A senator. Death in war with the Persians. 
An able and popular general and ruler. Re- 
covery of part of Gaul from the Franks, 
Burgundians, and Vandals. Establishment 
of Roman garri.sons in Germany. Subjuga- 
tion of the Sarmatians, and Nubians. Insur- 
rection of the soldiers ; murder of the 

Success of the Romans in the East. Cams 
killed by lightning. 

Sons of Carus. Associate emperors. Assas.s- 

IV. Barbaric Invasions : - 

284 Diocletian Prudent, talented, ambitious. The era of 

unlimited imperial authority. Abolition of 
military despotism. Selection of new .sea's 
of government, or capitals : Treves for 
Gaul, Britain, Spain ; Sirmium for Pan- 
nonia and lUyricum : Nicomedia for the 
East ; Milan for Italv. Extension of Chris- 
tianity. :\Iaximian his colleague : a rude 
but able .soldier. Defeat of the Gauls and 
Germans by Maximian. Division of (he 
Empire among 4 rulers : Diocletian, as the 
head or Augustus, the East. Galerius, 
Thrace and Danubian countries; Maximian, 
Italy, Africa, and Western Is.; Constan- 
tius, Gaul, Spain, Britain, Mauritania. These 
three ruled under the title of Caesars. Meas- 
ures to extirpate Christianity. Reduction of 
the power of the soldiers. Resignation of 
Diocletian and :Maximian. 








and Galerius 

the Great 

Constantine II 

Julian the 


Chief Events. 

Associate emperors. 4 other disputants. 

Sole emperor. }'"aitliless, ambitious, cruel. 
Foiuider of court despotism. Recognition of 
Christianity as the .state religion of the 
Empire ; Milan decree of religious liberty . 
foundation of the vast hierarchical system 
with Rome and the Bishops of Rome as 
centre. Transfer of the seat of Empire from 
Rome to Byzantium, re-named Constanti- 
nople. Division of the Empire into 4 prae- 
fectures, 14 dioceses, 116 provinces; changes 
in the government, the Roman governnjent 
an ab.solute monarchy ; increase of taxation. 
Oriental court style at Constantinople. Em- 
ployment of mercenary troops. Defeat of 
the" Goths. 

A timid, .suspicious ruler. Julian's defeat of 
the Gauls ; moderation and justice of his 
aiimini.stration in Gaul. 

Insuccessful attempt to restore the pagan 
religion of the Romans. Death of Julian in 
battle with the Persians. 

Recovei;y of their rights and privileges by 
the Christians. Success of the Persians. 



Roman history in brief. 

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VI Fall of the Empire :— 

1. Justinian (527-65): Defeat, by the great general Belis- 

arius,of the Persians; the Vandals in Africa; re-conquest 
of Sicily ; expulsion of the Goths from Italy. Conquest 
of N. Italy by the Lombards, a German people. 

2. Heraclius (610-641): A great general. Destruction of 

Persia's power. Conquest of Syria, Egypt, Africa, 
Spain by Mohammedan Arabs. 

3. Leo iri (717-41) : Expulsion of the Arabs from Gaul by 

Chas. Martel, the king of the Franks, 732. Quarrel 
of the Emperor with the Pope or Bishop of Rome 
about the worship of images ; break-up of the connec- 
tion between Italy and Constantinople ; loss of the 
Emperor's power in Italy ; support of the Pope, the 
chief magistrate of Rome, by the Prankish kings ; the 
Pope's coronation of Chas. Martel as Emperor of Rome, 
and grant to him of supreme authority over all the 

4. Germanization of Western Europe : Invasion of 

Italy, Britain, Gaul, Spain, Africa by barbarian Teu- 
tonic tribes ; formation of new and independent states : 
destruction of ancient civilization ; break-up of the 
Roman Empire ; founding of Modern Europe. 

5. Romanization of Western Europe : Adoption by the 

Teutonic tribes in Gaul, Spain, Italy, of Christianity, 
Roman language, laws, government, customs. 

6. Fall of Constantinople, 1453 : Reduction of the 

Eastern Empire to a small Greek kingdom. Destruc- 
tion of this state by the Turkish invaders of Europe ; 
Constantinople the capital of the new Turkish Empire, 



f'janadian History Notes 

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